When the human genome project mapped its first chromosome in 1999, scientists predicted the human genome would contain over 100,000 active genes. The scientists were shocked to discover that only around 20,000 were eventually identified as active. Non-coding areas make up much of the genome, and they are ultra-conserved — meaning they don’t evolve and are much the same now as they were a million years ago. And, they are much the same in humans as they are in rats. In fact, 95% of your genes are identical to those of a rat.