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New study suggests independent link between smoking and vitamin D status

Posted on: November 23, 2014   by  Vitamin D Council


New research published in the journal Hormones found a significant relationship between vitamin D status and smoking habits.

The researchers enrolled 181 healthy Greek men ages 20 to 50 years old to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency.

The researchers found that 50.3% of the participants were vitamin D deficient with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml. Only 8.8% of the participants were considered to be vitamin D sufficient with levels above 30 ng/ml.

Among all risk factors observed, including BMI, age, and alcohol consumption, a significant association was found only between vitamin D status and smoking. Smokers were 60% more likely to be vitamin D deficient than non-smokers.

Vitamin D levels were approximately 4.3 ng/ml less in a smoker compared to a non-smoker. In older participants, ages 40 to 50 years old, there was an average difference of 9.2 ng/ml between vitamin D levels of smokers and non-smokers.

“According to our data, smokers had lower serum vitamin D concentrations than non-smokers,” the researchers concluded.

“Interestingly, in the totality of participants, smoking was the only significant determinant of serum vitamin D among the tested variables (BMI, age, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium intake).”


Kassi E, et al. Smoking is a significant determinant of low serum vitamin D in young and middle-aged healthy males. Hormones, 2014. 

1 Response to New study suggests independent link between smoking and vitamin D status

  1. Rita Celone Umile

    So does this mean that smoking leads to vitamin D deficiency? Is it currently known if smoking leads to other vitamin deficiencies? And, if so–has there been research indicating that smokers who take supplements to avoid such deficiencies also avoid the diseases that are typically associated with smoking?

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