New research published in the journal Hormones found a significant relationship between vitamin D status and smoking habits.
The researchers enrolled 181 healthy Greek men ages 20 to 50 years old to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency.
The researchers found that 50.3% of the participants were vitamin D deficient with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/ml. Only 8.8% of the participants were considered to be vitamin D sufficient with levels above 30 ng/ml.
Among all risk factors observed, including BMI, age, and alcohol consumption, a significant association was found only between vitamin D status and smoking. Smokers were 60% more likely to be vitamin D deficient than non-smokers.
Vitamin D levels were approximately 4.3 ng/ml less in a smoker compared to a non-smoker. In older participants, ages 40 to 50 years old, there was an average difference of 9.2 ng/ml between vitamin D levels of smokers and non-smokers.
“According to our data, smokers had lower serum vitamin D concentrations than non-smokers,” the researchers concluded.
“Interestingly, in the totality of participants, smoking was the only significant determinant of serum vitamin D among the tested variables (BMI, age, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium intake).”