Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), also known as bottle rot, is a syndrome characterized by severe decay in the teeth of infants or toddlers. S-ECC is commonly caused by a bacterial infection with Streptococcus mutans. Its prevalence is epidemic; in the US, the rate is highest in minorities, at times infecting over 70% of minority children. The disease process begins with the transmission of the bacteria to the child, usually from the mother. Parents with untreated dental disease present a very high risk to their children.