There are a number of tests for preeclampsia early in pregnancy including metabolic factors1 and blood pressure2. Serum 25(OH)D level should be added to this list as well.

There is one reported randomized controlled study of vitamin D supplementation and risk of preeclampsia, performed in Norway on nulliporos women:

The odds ratio of preeclampsia for women with a total vitamin D intake of 15-20 microg/d compared with less than 5 microg/d was 0.76 (95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.95). Considering only the intake of vitamin D from supplements, we found a 27% reduction in risk of preeclampsia (OR = 0.73 [0.58-0.92]) for women taking 10-15 microg/d as compared with no supplements. No association was found between intake of vitamin D from the diet alone and the occurrence of preeclampsia3. (1 microg/d = 40 IU/d).

Based on the findings by Bodnar et al4 it appears that serum 25(OH)D levels should be kept above 40 ng/ml during pregnancy. Pregnant women should consider taking several thousand IU/day of vitamin D35.

Page last edited: 03 May 2011


  1. Kenny, L. C. Broadhurst, D. I. Dunn, W. Brown, M. North, R. A. McCowan, L. Roberts, C. Cooper, G. J. Kell, D. B. Baker, P. N. Robust early pregnancy prediction of later preeclampsia using metabolomic biomarkers. Hypertension. 2010 Oct; 56 (4): 741-9.
  2. Poon, L. C. Kametas, N. A. Valencia, C. Chelemen, T. Nicolaides, K. H. Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy: Screening by Systolic Diastolic and Mean Arterial Pressure at 11-13 Weeks. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2010 Sep 6;
  3. Haugen, M. Brantsaeter, A. L. Trogstad, L. Alexander, J. Roth, C. Magnus, P. Meltzer, H. M. Vitamin D supplementation and reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women. Epidemiology. 2009 Sep; 20 (5): 720-6.
  4. Bodnar, L. M. Catov, J. M. Roberts, J. M. Racial/ethnic differences in the monthly variation of preeclampsia incidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr; 196 (4): 324 e1-5.
  5. Hollis, B. W. Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec; 22 Suppl 2V39-44.