This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA
[email protected]

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Page last edited: 13 May 2011


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  2. Al-Ameer, A. M. Al-Akloby, O. M. Demographic features and seasonal variations in patients with acne vulgaris in Saudi Arabia: a hospital-based study. International journal of dermatology. 2002 Dec; 41 (12): 870-1.
  3. Ammad, S. Gonzales, M. Edwards, C. Finlay, A. Y. Mills, C. An assessment of the efficacy of blue light phototherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2008 Sep; 7 (3): 180-8.
  4. Ayer, J. Burrows, N. Acne: more than skin deep. Postgraduate medical journal. 2006 Aug; 82 (970): 500-6.
  5. Berg, M. Epidemiological studies of the influence of sunlight on the skin. Photo-dermatology. 1989 Apr; 6 (2): 80-4.
  6. Elman, M. Slatkine, M. Harth, Y. The effective treatment of acne vulgaris by a high-intensity, narrow band 405-420 nm light source. Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology. 2003 Jun; 5 (2): 111-7.
  7. Fluhr, J. W. Gloor, M. The antimicrobial effect of narrow-band UVB (313 nm) and UVA1 (345-440 nm) radiation in vitro. Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine. 1997 Oct-Dec; 13 (5-6): 197-201.
  8. Gfesser, M. Worret, W. I. Seasonal variations in the severity of acne vulgaris. International journal of dermatology. 1996 Feb; 35 (2): 116-7.
  9. Harrison, W. J. Bull, J. J. Seltmann, H. Zouboulis, C. C. Philpott, M. P. Expression of lipogenic factors galectin-12, resistin, SREBP-1, and SCD in human sebaceous glands and cultured sebocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2007 Jun; 127 (6): 1309-17.
  10. Jha, A. K. Gurung, D. Seasonal variation of skin diseases in Nepal: a hospital based annual study of out-patient visits. Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ. 2006 Dec; 8 (4): 266-8.
  11. Jung, J. Y. Yoon, M. Y. Min, S. U. Hong, J. S. Choi, Y. S. Suh, D. H. The influence of dietary patterns on acne vulgaris in Koreans. European journal of dermatology : EJD. 2010 Nov-Dec; 20 (6): 768-72.
  12. Koreck, A. Pivarcsi, A. Dobozy, A. Kemeny, L. The role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of acne. Dermatology. 2003; 206 (2): 96-105.
  13. Kramer, C. Seltmann, H. Seifert, M. Tilgen, W. Zouboulis, C. C. Reichrath, J. Characterization of the vitamin D endocrine system in human sebocytes in vitro. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology. 2009 Jan; 113 (1-2): 9-16.
  14. Lee, D. Y. Huang, C. M. Nakatsuji, T. Thiboutot, D. Kang, S. A. Monestier, M. Gallo, R. L. Histone H4 is a major component of the antimicrobial action of human sebocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2009 Oct; 129 (10): 2489-96.
  15. Melnik, B. [Acne vulgaris. Role of diet]. Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete. 2010 Feb; 61 (2): 115-25.
  16. Melnik, B. C. Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products. Nestle Nutrition workshop series. Paediatric programme. 2011; 67131-45.
  17. Nakatsuji, T. Kao, M. C. Zhang, L. Zouboulis, C. C. Gallo, R. L. Huang, C. M. Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. The Journal of investigative dermatology. 2010 Apr; 130 (4): 985-94.
  18. Nouri, K. Villafradez-Diaz, L. M. Light/laser therapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2005 Dec; 4 (4): 318-20.
  19. Reichrath, J. Vitamin D and the skin: an ancient friend, revisited. Exp Dermatol. 2007 Jul; 16 (7): 618-25.
  20. Sardana, K. Sharma, R. C. Sarkar, R. Seasonal variation in acne vulgaris--myth or reality. The Journal of dermatology. 2002 Aug; 29 (8): 484-8.
  21. Schwalfenberg, G. K. A review of the critical role of vitamin D in the functioning of the immune system and the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2011 Jan; 55 (1): 96-108.
  22. Tamer, E. Ilhan, M. N. Polat, M. Lenk, N. Alli, N. Prevalence of skin diseases among pediatric patients in Turkey. The Journal of dermatology. 2008 Jul; 35 (7): 413-8.
  23. White, J. H. Vitamin D as an inducer of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression: past, present and future. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 234-8.
  24. Zouboulis, C. C. [Acne vulgaris. The role of hormones]. Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete. 2010 Feb; 61 (2): 107-8, 110-4.