Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - References


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA   
[email protected]

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 06 May 2011


  1. Ampikaipakan, S. N. Hughes, D. A. Hughes, J. C. Amen, T. Bentham, G. Wilson, A. M. Vitamin D and COPD: seasonal variation is important. Thorax. 2010 Jun 26;
  2. Black, P. N. Scragg, R. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and pulmonary function in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Chest. 2005 Dec; 128 (6): 3792-8.
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  5. Brot, C. Jorgensen, N. R. Sorensen, O. H. The influence of smoking on vitamin D status and calcium metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Dec; 53 (12): 920-6.
  6. Brownson, R. C. Reif, J. S. Chang, J. C. Davis, J. R. Cancer risks among Missouri farmers. Cancer. 1989 Dec 1; 64 (11): 2381-6.
  7. Cannell, J. J. Vieth, R. Umhau, J. C. Holick, M. F. Grant, W. B. Madronich, S. Garland, C. F. Giovannucci, E. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec; 134 (6): 1129-40.
  8. Cannell, J. J. Zasloff, M. Garland, C. F. Scragg, R. Giovannucci, E. On the epidemiology of influenza. Virol J. 2008; 529.
  9. Chishimba, L. Thickett, D. R. Stockley, R. A. Wood, A. M. The vitamin D axis in the lung: a key role for vitamin D-binding protein. Thorax. 2010 May; 65 (5): 456-62.
  10. Coussens, A. Timms, P. M. Boucher, B. J. Venton, T. R. Ashcroft, A. T. Skolimowska, K. H. Newton, S. M. Wilkinson, K. A. Davidson, R. N. Griffiths, C. J. Wilkinson, R. J. Martineau, A. R. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinases induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Immunology. 2009 Aug; 127 (4): 539-48.
  11. de Batlle, J. Romieu, I. Anto, J. M. Mendez, M. Rodriguez, E. Balcells, E. Ferrer, A. Gea, J. Rodriguez-Roisin, R. Garcia-Aymerich, J. Dietary habits of firstly admitted Spanish COPD patients. Respir Med. 2009 Dec; 103 (12): 1904-10.
  12. De Serres, G. Lampron, N. La Forge, J. Rouleau, I. Bourbeau, J. Weiss, K. Barret, B. Boivin, G. Importance of viral and bacterial infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. J Clin Virol. 2009 Oct; 46 (2): 129-33.
  13. Diaz, L. Noyola-Martinez, N. Barrera, D. Hernandez, G. Avila, E. Halhali, A. Larrea, F. Calcitriol inhibits TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory cytokines in human trophoblasts. Journal of reproductive immunology. 2009 Jul; 81 (1): 17-24.
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  15. Forli, L. Bjortuft, O. Boe, J. Vitamin D status in relation to nutritional depletion and muscle function in patients with advanced pulmonary disease. Exp Lung Res. 2009 Aug; 35 (6): 524-38.
  16. Forli, L. Halse, J. Haug, E. Bjortuft, O. Vatn, M. Kofstad, J. Boe, J. Vitamin D deficiency, bone mineral density and weight in patients with advanced pulmonary disease. J Intern Med. 2004 Jul; 256 (1): 56-62.
  17. Franco, C. B. Paz-Filho, G. Gomes, P. E. Nascimento, V. B. Kulak, C. A. Boguszewski, C. L. Borba, V. Z. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with osteoporosis and low levels of vitamin D. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Mar 20;
  18. Gilbert, C. R. Arum, S. M. Smith, C. M. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic lung disease. Can Respir J. 2009 May-Jun; 16 (3): 75-80.
  19. Ginde, A. A. Mansbach, J. M. Camargo, C. A., Jr. Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23; 169 (4): 384-90.
  20. Gorse, G. J. O'Connor T, Z. Young, S. L. Habib, M. P. Wittes, J. Neuzil, K. M. Nichol, K. L. Impact of a winter respiratory virus season on patients with COPD and association with influenza vaccination. Chest. 2006 Oct; 130 (4): 1109-16.
  21. Gorse, G. J. O'Connor, T. Z. Hall, S. L. Vitale, J. N. Nichol, K. L. Human coronavirus and acute respiratory illness in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 15; 199 (6): 847-57.
  22. Grant, W. B. A possible role for Epstein-Barr virus infection in COPD?. Eur Respir J. 2008 Nov; 32 (5): 1412-3; author reply 1413.
  23. Hopkinson, N. S. Li, K. W. Kehoe, A. Humphries, S. E. Roughton, M. Moxham, J. Montgomery, H. Polkey, M. I. Vitamin D receptor genotypes influence quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb; 87 (2): 385-90.
  24. Hughes, D. A. Norton, R. Vitamin D and respiratory health. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Oct; 158 (1): 20-5.
  25. Janssens, W. Bouillon, R. Claes, B. Carremans, C. Lehouck, A. Buysschaert, I. Coolen, J. Mathieu, C. Decramer, M. Lambrechts, D. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in COPD and correlates with variants in the vitamin D-binding gene. Thorax. 2010 Mar; 65 (3): 215-20.
  26. Janssens, W. Lehouck, A. Carremans, C. Bouillon, R. Mathieu, C. Decramer, M. Vitamin D beyond bones in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: time to act. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr 15; 179 (8): 630-6.
  27. Johnston, N. W. The similarities and differences of epidemic cycles of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma exacerbations. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007 Dec; 4 (8): 591-6.
  28. Jorde, R. Saleh, F. Figenschau, Y. Kamycheva, E. Haug, E. Sundsfjord, J. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in smokers and non-smokers. The fifth Tromsø study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Jan.; 52 (1): 39-45.
  29. Jorgensen, N. R. Schwarz, P. Holme, I. Henriksen, B. M. Petersen, L. J. Backer, V. The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross sectional study. Respir Med. 2007 Jan; 101 (1): 177-85.
  30. Kinnunen, T. Saynajakangas, O. Keistinen, T. Features of hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD resulting in death. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2007 Mar; 67 (1): 10-4.
  31. Kunisaki, K. M. Niewoehner, D. E. Singh, R. J. Connett, J. E. "Vitamin D Status and Longitudinal Lung Function Decline in the Lung Health Study". Eur Respir J. 2010 Jul 1;
  32. Li, Y. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. Xiong, S. Ni, W. Chen, S. TNF-alpha up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity in alveolar macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban. 2006; 26 (6): 647-50.
  33. Lim, S. Roche, N. Oliver, B. G. Mattos, W. Barnes, P. J. Chung, K. F. Balance of matrix metalloprotease-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 from alveolar macrophages in cigarette smokers. Regulation by interleukin-10. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2000 Oct; 162 (4 Pt 1): 1355-60.
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  35. Mascitelli, L. Pezzetta, F. Goldstein, M. R. Statins, vitamin D, and COPD. Chest. 2010 Mar; 137 (3): 742-3; author reply 743.
  36. McManus, T. E. Marley, A. M. Baxter, N. Christie, S. N. Elborn, J. S. O'Neill, H. J. Coyle, P. V. Kidney, J. C. High levels of Epstein-Barr virus in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2008 Jun; 31 (6): 1221-6.
  37. McManus, T. E. Marley, A. M. Baxter, N. Christie, S. N. O'Neill, H. J. Elborn, J. S. Coyle, P. V. Kidney, J. C. Respiratory viral infection in exacerbations of COPD. Respir Med. 2008 Nov; 102 (11): 1575-80.
  38. Mercer, P. F. Shute, J. K. Bhowmik, A. Donaldson, G. C. Wedzicha, J. A. Warner, J. A. MMP-9, TIMP-1 and inflammatory cells in sputum from COPD patients during exacerbation. Respir Res. 2005; 6151.
  39. Moineddin, R. Nie, J. X. Domb, G. Leong, A. M. Upshur, R. E. Seasonality of primary care utilization for respiratory diseases in Ontario: a time-series analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008; 8160.
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  41. Plans-Rubio, P. Prevention and control of influenza in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007; 2 (1): 41-53.
  42. Pukkala, E. Martinsen, J. I. Lynge, E. Gunnarsdottir, H. K. Sparen, P. Tryggvadottir, L. Weiderpass, E. Kjaerheim, K. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries. Acta Oncol. 2009; 48 (5): 646-790.
  43. Quint, J. K. Wedzicha, J. A. Is vitamin D deficiency important in the natural history of COPD?. Thorax. 2010 March; 65 (3): 192-194.
  44. Robinson, D. S. Regulatory T cells and asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 Sep; 39 (9): 1314-23.
  45. Schellenberg, D. Pare, P. D. Weir, T. D. Spinelli, J. J. Walker, B. A. Sandford, A. J. Vitamin D binding protein variants and the risk of COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Mar; 157 (3 Pt 1): 957-61.
  46. Schembri, S. Morant, S. Winter, J. H. MacDonald, T. M. Influenza but not pneumococcal vaccination protects against all-cause mortality in patients with COPD. Thorax. 2009 Jul; 64 (7): 567-72.
  47. Shen, L. H. Zhang, X. M. Su, D. J. Yao, S. P. Yu, B. Q. Wang, H. W. Lu, F. Z. Association of vitamin D binding protein variants with susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Int Med Res. 2010 May-Jun; 38 (3): 1093-8.
  48. Tuchsen, F. Hannerz, H. Social and occupational differences in chronic obstructive lung disease in Denmark 1981-1993. Am J Ind Med. 2000 Mar; 37 (3): 300-6.
  49. Urashima, M. Segawa, T. Okazaki, M. Kurihara, M. Wada, Y. Ida, H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May; 91 (5): 1255-60.