Periodontal diseaseReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in periodontal disease.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 17 May 2011


  1. Adams, J. S. Ren, S. Liu, P. T. Chun, R. F. Lagishetty, V. Gombart, A. F. Borregaard, N. Modlin, R. L. Hewison, M. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 1; 182 (7): 4289-95.
  2. Amano, Y. Komiyama, K. Makishima, M. Vitamin D and periodontal disease. J Oral Sci. 2009 Mar; 51 (1): 11-20.
  3. Awano, S. Ansai, T. Takata, Y. Soh, I. Akifusa, S. Hamasaki, T. Yoshida, A. Sonoki, K. Fujisawa, K. Takehara, T. Oral health and mortality risk from pneumonia in the elderly. J Dent Res. 2008 Apr; 87 (4): 334-9.
  4. Blaizot, A. Vergnes, J. N. Nuwwareh, S. Amar, J. Sixou, M. Periodontal diseases and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis of observational studies. Int Dent J. 2009 Aug; 59 (4): 197-209.
  5. Boggess, K. A. Espinola, J. A. Moss, K. Beck, J. Offenbacher, S. Camargo, C. A. Vitamin D Status and Periodontal Disease Among Pregnant Women. J Periodontol. 2010 Sep 1;
  6. Cronin, A. Periodontal disease is a risk marker for coronary heart disease?. Evid Based Dent. 2009; 10 (1): 22.
  7. de Brito Junior, R. B. Scarel-Caminaga, R. M. Trevilatto, P. C. de Souza, A. P. Barros, S. P. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene are associated with periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2004 Aug; 75 (8): 1090-5.
  8. Dietrich, T. Joshipura, K. J. Dawson-Hughes, B. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul; 80 (1): 108-13.
  9. Dietrich, T. Nunn, M. Dawson-Hughes, B. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and gingival inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep; 82 (3): 575-80.
  10. Dunning, T. Periodontal disease--the overlooked diabetes complication. Nephrol Nurs J. 2009 Sep-Oct; 36 (5): 489-95; quiz 496.
  11. Fitzpatrick, S. G. Katz, J. The association between periodontal disease and cancer: a review of the literature. J Dent. 2010 Feb; 38 (2): 83-95.
  12. Kurtzke, J.F. Epidemiologic evidence for multiple sclerosis as an infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993 Oct; 6 (4): 382-427.
  13. Gombart, A. F. The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 41151-65.
  14. Grant, W. B. Boucher, B. J. Are Hill's criteria for causality satisfied for vitamin D and periodontal disease?. Dermatoendocrinol. 2010 January/February/March; 2 (1): 30-36.
  15. Graves, D. Cytokines that promote periodontal tissue destruction. J Periodontol. 2008 Aug; 79 (8 Suppl): 1585-91.
  16. Gutner, M. Chaushu, S. Balter, D. Bachrach, G. Saliva enables the antimicrobial activity of LL-37 in the presence of proteases of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2009 Dec; 77 (12): 5558-63.
  17. Holick, M. F. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 19; 357 (3): 266-81.
  18. Humphrey, L. L. Fu, R. Buckley, D. I. Freeman, M. Helfand, M. Periodontal disease and coronary heart disease incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Dec; 23 (12): 2079-86.
  19. Inagaki, K. Krall, E. A. Fleet, J. C. Garcia, R. I. Vitamin D receptor alleles, periodontal disease progression, and tooth loss in the VA dental longitudinal study. J Periodontol. 2003 Feb; 74 (2): 161-7.
  20. Jabbar, S. Drury, J. Fordham, J. Datta, H. K. Francis, R. M. Tuck, S. P. Plasma vitamin D and cytokines in periodontal disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Periodontal Res. 2010 Aug 20;
  21. Kebschull, M. Demmer, R. T. Papapanou, P. N. "Gum bug, leave my heart alone!"--epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking periodontal infections and atherosclerosis. J Dent Res. 2010 Sep; 89 (9): 879-902.
  22. Kinane, D. Bouchard, P. Periodontal diseases and health: Consensus Report of the Sixth European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Sep; 35 (8 Suppl): 333-7.
  23. Krall, E. A. Wehler, C. Garcia, R. I. Harris, S. S. Dawson-Hughes, B. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Am J Med. 2001 Oct 15; 111 (6): 452-6.
  24. Law, V. Seow, W. K. Townsend, G. Factors influencing oral colonization of mutans streptococci in young children. Aust Dent J. 2007 Jun; 52 (2): 93-100; quiz 159.
  25. Lieff, S. Boggess, K. A. Murtha, A. P. Jared, H. Madianos, P. N. Moss, K. Beck, J. Offenbacher, S. The oral conditions and pregnancy study: periodontal status of a cohort of pregnant women. J Periodontol. 2004 Jan; 75 (1): 116-26.
  26. Lorencini, M. Silva, J. A. de la Hoz, C. L. Carvalho, H. F. Stach-Machado, D. R. Changes in MMPs and inflammatory cells in experimental gingivitis. Histol Histopathol. 2009 Feb; 24 (2): 157-66.
  27. Marcaccini, A. M. Novaes, A. B., Jr. Meschiari, C. A. Souza, S. L. Palioto, D. B. Sorgi, C. A. Faccioli, L. H. Tanus-Santos, J. E. Gerlach, R. F. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and MMP-9 are increased in chronic periodontal disease and decrease after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Clin Chim Acta. 2009 Nov; 409 (1-2): 117-22.
  28. Michaud, D. S. Liu, Y. Meyer, M. Giovannucci, E. Joshipura, K. Periodontal disease, tooth loss, and cancer risk in male health professionals: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2008 Jun; 9 (6): 550-8.
  29. Miley, D. D. Garcia, M. N. Hildebolt, C. F. Shannon, W. D. Couture, R. A. Anderson Spearie, C. L. Dixon, D. A. Langenwalter, E. M. Mueller, C. Civitelli, R. Cross-sectional study of vitamin D and calcium supplementation effects on chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2009 Sep; 80 (9): 1433-9.
  30. Nibali, L. Parkar, M. D'Aiuto, F. Suvan, J. E. Brett, P. M. Griffiths, G. S. Rosin, M. Schwahn, C. Tonetti, M. S. Vitamin D receptor polymorphism (-1056 Taq-I) interacts with smoking for the presence and progression of periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Jul; 35 (7): 561-7.
  31. Park, K. S. Nam, J. H. Choi, J. The short vitamin D receptor is associated with increased risk for generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2006 Aug; 33 (8): 524-8.
  32. Powell, R. N. Geographic effects on dental caries prevalence and tooth loss in Australia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1983 Aug; 11 (4): 242-5.
  33. Ramagopalan, S.V. Heger, A. Berlanga, A.J. et al A ChIP-seq defined genome-wide map of vitamin D receptor binding: associations with disease and evolution. Genome Res. 2010; 20 (10): 1352-60.
  34. Santacroce, L. Carlaio, R. G. Bottalico, L. Does it make sense that diabetes is reciprocally associated with periodontal disease?. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Mar 1; 10 (1): 57-70.
  35. Timms, P. M. Mannan, N. Hitman, G. A. Noonan, K. Mills, P. G. Syndercombe-Court, D. Aganna, E. Price, C. P. Boucher, B. J. Circulating MMP9, vitamin D and variation in the TIMP-1 response with VDR genotype: mechanisms for inflammatory damage in chronic disorders?. QJM. 2002 Dec; 95 (12): 787-96.
  36. Wang, C. Zhao, H. Xiao, L. Xie, C. Fan, W. Sun, S. Xie, B. Zhang, J. Association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and severe chronic periodontitis in a Chinese population. J Periodontol. 2009 Apr; 80 (4): 603-8.