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Dental cariesReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in dental caries.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 17 May 2011


  1. Abiko, Y. Nishimura, M. Kaku, T. Defensins in saliva and the salivary glands. Med Electron Microsc. 2003 Dec; 36 (4): 247-52.
  2. Abiko, Y. Saitoh, M. Salivary defensins and their importance in oral health and disease. Curr Pharm Des. 2007; 13 (30): 3065-72.
  3. Altman, H. Steinberg, D. Porat, Y. Mor, A. Fridman, D. Friedman, M. Bachrach, G. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial peptides as potential agents against several oral bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Jul; 58 (1): 198-201.
  4. Armstrong, W. D. An evaluation of the role of vitamins and minerals in the control of caries. J Dent Res. 1948 Jun; 27 (3): 376-96.
  5. Ascherio, A. Munger, K. L. Simon, K. C. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Jun; 9 (6): 599-612.
  6. Bevenius, J. Caries risk in patients with Crohn's disease: a pilot study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1988 Mar; 65 (3): 304-7.
  7. Bolin, A. K. Bolin, A. Koch, G. Children's dental health in Europe: caries experience of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight EU countries. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1996 Sep; 6 (3): 155-62.
  8. Craelius, W. Comparative epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and dental caries. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1978 Sep; 32 (3): 155-65.
  9. Dale, B. A. Fredericks, L. P. Antimicrobial peptides in the oral environment: expression and function in health and disease. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2005 Jul; 7 (2): 119-33.
  10. Dale, B. A. Tao, R. Kimball, J. R. Jurevic, R. J. Oral antimicrobial peptides and biological control of caries. BMC Oral Health. 2006; 6 Suppl 1S13.
  11. Diamond, G. Beckloff, N. Ryan, L. K. Host defense peptides in the oral cavity and the lung: similarities and differences. J Dent Res. 2008 Oct; 87 (10): 915-27.
  12. Downer, M. C. Blinkhorn, A. S. Holt, R. D. Wight, C. Attwood, D. Dental caries experience and defects of dental enamel among 12-year-old children in north London, Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dublin. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994 Oct; 22 (5 Pt 1): 283-5.
  13. Dunning, J. M. The influence of latitude and distance from seacoast on dental disease. J Dent Res. 1953 Dec; 32 (6): 811-29.
  14. East, B. R. Mean Annual Hours of Sunshine and the Incidence of Dental Caries. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1939 Jul; 29 (7): 777-80.
  15. Erpf, S. F. Dental caries and paradental disturbances, II, The seasonable incidence of dental caries. J Am Dent Assoc. 1938; 25681-682.
  16. Gombart, A. F. The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 41151-65.
  17. Gomes, P. de S. Fernandes, M. H. Defensins in the oral cavity: distribution and biological role. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010 Jan; 39 (1): 1-9.
  18. Grant, W. B. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in 3 US communities: the role of vitamin D. Prev Chronic Dis. 2010 Jul; 7 (4): A89; author reply A90.
  19. Grant, W. B. Boucher, B. J. Are Hill's criteria for causality satisfied for vitamin D and periodontal disease?. Dermatoendocrinol. 2010 January/February/March; 2 (1): 30-36.
  20. Hadjimarkos, D. M. Geographic variations of dental caries in Oregon. VII. Caries prevalence among children in the Blue Mountains region. J Pediatr. 1956 Feb; 48 (2): 195-201.
  21. Hadjimarkos, D. M. Storvick, C. A. Geographic variations of dental caries in Oregon: V. Dental caries among school children in the Willamette Valley region. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951 Sep; 41 (9): 1052-8.
  22. Hadjimarkos, D. M. Storvick, C. A. Sullivan, J. H. Geographic variations of dental caries in Oregon. III. A consideration of the influence of some environmental factors on the caries experience of native born and reared school children in two regions. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 1950 April; 3 (4):
  23. Hall, R. L. Morrow, R. Clarke, J. H. Dental pathology of prehistoric residents of Oregon. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1986 Mar; 69 (3): 325-34.
  24. Iida, H. Kumar, J. V. The association between enamel fluorosis and dental caries in U.S. schoolchildren. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009 Jul; 140 (7): 855-62.
  25. Islam, B. Khan, S. N. Khan, A. U. Dental caries: from infection to prevention. Med Sci Monit. 2007 Nov; 13 (11): RA196-203.
  26. Ji, S. Hyun, J. Park, E. Lee, B. L. Kim, K. K. Choi, Y. Susceptibility of various oral bacteria to antimicrobial peptides and to phagocytosis by neutrophils. J Periodontal Res. 2007 Oct; 42 (5): 410-9.
  27. Komatsuzawa, H. Ouhara, K. Kawai, T. Yamada, S. Fujiwara, T. Shiba, H. Kurihara, H. Taubman, M. A. Sugai, M. Susceptibility of periodontopathogenic and cariogenic bacteria to defensins and potential therapeutic use of defensins in oral diseases. Curr Pharm Des. 2007; 13 (30): 3084-95.
  28. Lappe, J. M. Travers-Gustafson, D. Davies, K. M. Recker, R. R. Heaney, R. P. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85 (6): 1586-91.
  29. Law, V. Seow, W. K. Townsend, G. Factors influencing oral colonization of mutans streptococci in young children. Aust Dent J. 2007 Jun; 52 (2): 93-100; quiz 159.
  30. Levin, K. A. Davies, C. A. Douglas, G. V. Pitts, N. B. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland. Soc Sci Med. 2010 Sep 29;
  31. Lewis, J. R. Exemptions from military service on account of loss of teeth. Dental Cosmos. 1865; 7 (5): 240-242.
  32. Liu, P. T. Stenger, S. Tang, D. H. Modlin, R. L. Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15; 179 (4): 2060-3.
  33. Ludwig, T. G. Bibby, B. G. Geographic variations in the prevalence of dental caries in the United States of America. Caries Res. 1969; 3 (1): 32-43.
  34. Masson, L. F. Blackburn, A. Sheehy, C. Craig, L. C. Macdiarmid, J. I. Holmes, B. A. McNeill, G. Sugar intake and dental decay: results from a national survey of children in Scotland. Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul 19; 1-10.
  35. McBeath, E. W. Zucker, T. F. The Role of vitamin D in the control of dental caries in children. J. Nutrition. 1938; 15 (6): 547-564.
  36. McGrother, C. W. Dugmore, C. Phillips, M. J. Raymond, N. T. Garrick, P. Baird, W. O. Multiple sclerosis, dental caries and fillings: a case-control study. Br Dent J. 1999 Sep 11; 187 (5): 261-4.
  37. Mills, C. A. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Dental Caries in Population Groups. J Dental Res. 1937; 16417-430.
  38. National Institute of Dental Research , Oral Health of United States Children: The National Survey of Oral Health in U.S. School Children-1986-1987. Public Use Data File Documentation and Survey Methodology 1986-1987. 1992;
  39. Pitts, N. B. Boyles, J. Nugent, Z. J. Thomas, N. Pine, C. M. The dental caries experience of 11-year-old children in Great Britain. Surveys coordinated by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry in 2004 / 2005. Community Dent Health. 2006 Mar; 23 (1): 44-57.
  40. Powell, R. N. Geographic effects on dental caries prevalence and tooth loss in Australia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1983 Aug; 11 (4): 242-5.
  41. Sabetta, J. R. DePetrillo, P. Cipriani, R. J. Smardin, J. Burns, L. A. Landry, M. L. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2010; 5 (6): e11088.
  42. Tao, R. Jurevic, R. J. Coulton, K. K. Tsutsui, M. T. Roberts, M. C. Kimball, J. R. Wells, N. Berndt, J. Dale, B. A. Salivary antimicrobial peptide expression and dental caries experience in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Sep; 49 (9): 3883-8.
  43. U.S. Public Health Service, Dental Survey of School Children, Ages 6-14 Years Made in 1933-4 in 268 States. 1936;
  44. Valentine, A. D. Maung, U. T. Sein, U. K. Anderson, R. J. Bradnock, G. Geography and dental caries. Br Dent J. 1982 Jul 20; 153 (2): 55-8.
  45. Van Nieuw Amerongen, A. Bolscher, J. G. Veerman, E. C. Salivary proteins: protective and diagnostic value in cariology?. Caries Res. 2004 May-Jun; 38 (3): 247-53.
  46. Witkop, C. J., Jr. Barros, L. Hamilton, P. A. Geographic and nutritional factors in dental caries. Public Health Rep. 1962 Nov; 77928-40.
  47. Zaborskis, A. Milciuviene, S. Narbutaite, J. Bendoraitiene, E. Kavaliauskiene, A. Caries experience and oral health behaviour among 11 -13-year-olds: an ecological study of data from 27 European countries, Israel, Canada and USA. Community Dent Health. 2010 Jun; 27 (2): 102-8.