This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco,
CA 94164-1603,
[email protected]

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Page last edited: 17 May 2011


  1. Al-Allaf, A. W. Mole, P. A. Paterson, C. R. Pullar, T. Bone health in patients with fibromyalgia. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 Oct; 42 (10): 1202-6.
  2. Armstrong, D. J. Meenagh, G. K. Bickle, I. Lee, A. S. Curran, E. S. Finch, M. B. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Apr; 26 (4): 551-4.
  3. Arvold, D. S. Odean, M. J. Dornfeld, M. P. Regal, R. R. Arvold, J. G. Karwoski, G. C. Mast, D. J. Sanford, P. B. Sjoberg, R. J. Correlation of symptoms with vitamin D deficiency and symptom response to cholecalciferol treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Endocr Pract. 2009 Apr; 15 (3): 203-12.
  4. Badsha, H. Daher, M. Ooi Kong, K. Myalgias or non-specific muscle pain in Arab or Indo-Pakistani patients may indicate vitamin D deficiency. Clin Rheumatol. 2009 Aug; 28 (8): 971-3.
  5. Bazzichi, L. Rossi, A. Massimetti, G. Giannaccini, G. Giuliano, T. De Feo, F. Ciapparelli, A. Dell'Osso, L. Bombardieri, S. Cytokine patterns in fibromyalgia and their correlation with clinical manifestations. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007 Mar-Apr; 25 (2): 225-30.
  6. Erkal, M. Z. Wilde, J. Bilgin, Y. Akinci, A. Demir, E. Bodeker, R. H. Mann, M. Bretzel, R. G. Stracke, H. Holick, M. F. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and generalized bone pain in Turkish immigrants in Germany: identification of risk factors. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17 (8): 1133-40.
  7. Hernandez, M.E. et al Proinflammatory cytokine levels in fibromyalgia patients are independent of body mass index. BMC Res Notes. 2010; 3 (1): 156.
  8. Holick, M. F. Optimal vitamin D status for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Drugs Aging. 2007; 24 (12): 1017-29.
  9. Hoogendijk, W. J. Lips, P. Dik, M. G. Deeg, D. J. Beekman, A. T. Penninx, B. W. Depression is associated with decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels in older adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 May; 65 (5): 508-12.
  10. Kuo, Y. T. Kuo, C. H. Lam, K. P. Chu, Y. T. Wang, W. L. Huang, C. H. Hung, C. H. Effects of vitamin D3 on expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and chemokines by monocytes. J Food Sci. 2010 Aug 1; 75 (6): H200-4.
  11. McNally, J. D. Matheson, D. A. Bakowsky, V. S. The epidemiology of self-reported fibromyalgia in Canada. Chronic Dis Can. 2006; 27 (1): 9-16.
  12. Plotnikoff, G. A. Quigley, J. M. Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Dec; 78 (12): 1463-70.
  13. Stewart, R. Hirani, V. Relationship between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in older residents from a national survey population. Psychosom Med. 2010 Sep; 72 (7): 608-12.
  14. Swezey, R. L. Adams, J. Fibromyalgia: a risk factor for osteoporosis. J Rheumatol. 1999 Dec; 26 (12): 2642-4.
  15. Wallace, D. J. Is there a role for cytokine based therapies in fibromyalgia. Curr Pharm Des. 2006; 12 (1): 17-22.
  16. Wang, H. Moser, M. Schiltenwolf, M. Buchner, M. Circulating cytokine levels compared to pain in patients with fibromyalgia -- a prospective longitudinal study over 6 months. J Rheumatol. 2008 Jul; 35 (7): 1366-70.
  17. Xue, M. L. Zhu, H. Thakur, A. Willcox, M. 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in human corneal epithelial cells colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Immunol Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 80 (4): 340-5.