Cognitive impairmentReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:

Cedric Annweiler  

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in cognitive impairment. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 09 May 2011


  1. Annweiler, C. Allali, G. Allain, P. Bridenbaugh, S. Schott, A. M. Kressig, R. W. Beauchet, O. Vitamin D and cognitive performance in adults: a systematic review. Eur J Neurol. 2009 Oct; 16 (10): 1083-9.
  2. Annweiler, C. Schott, A. M. Allali, G. Bridenbaugh, S. A. Kressig, R. W. Allain, P. Herrmann, F. R. Beauchet, O. Association of vitamin D deficiency with cognitive impairment in older women: cross-sectional study. Neurology. 2010 Jan 5; 74 (1): 27-32.
  3. Annweiler, C. Schott, A. M. Rolland, Y. Blain, H. Herrmann, F. R. Beauchet, O. Dietary intakes of vitamin D and cognition in older women: A large population-based study. Neurology, in press.
  4. Buell, J. S. Dawson-Hughes, B. Vitamin D and neurocognitive dysfunction: preventing "D"ecline?. Mol Aspects Med. 2008 Dec; 29 (6): 415-22.
  5. Buell, J. S. Dawson-Hughes, B. Scott, T. M. Weiner, D. E. Dallal, G. E. Qui, W. Q. Bergethon, P. Rosenberg, I. H. Folstein, M. F. Patz, S. Bhadelia, R. A. Tucker, K. L. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, dementia, and cerebrovascular pathology in elders receiving home services. Neurology. Jan 5; 74 (1): 18-26.
  6. Buell, J. S. Scott, T. M. Dawson-Hughes, B. Dallal, G. E. Rosenberg, I. H. Folstein, M. F. Tucker, K. L. Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009 Aug; 64 (8): 888-95.
  7. Johnson, K. C. Margolis, K. L. Espeland, M. A. Colenda, C. C. Fillit, H. Manson, J. E. Masaki, K. H. Mouton, C. P. Prineas, R. Robinson, J. G. Wassertheil-Smoller, S. A prospective study of the effect of hypertension and baseline blood pressure on cognitive decline and dementia in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Aug; 56 (8): 1449-58.
  8. Jorde, R. Waterloo, K. Saleh, F. Haug, E. Svartberg, J. Neuropsychological function in relation to serum parathyroid hormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The Tromso study. J Neurol. 2006 Apr; 253 (4): 464-70.
  9. Lee, D. M. Tajar, A. Ulubaev, A. Pendleton, N. O'Neill, T. W. O'Connor, D. B. Bartfai, G. Boonen, S. Bouillon, R. Casanueva, F. F. Finn, J. D. Forti, G. Giwercman, A. Han, T. S. Huhtaniemi, I. T. Kula, K. Lean, M. E. Punab, M. Silman, A. J. Vanderschueren, D. Wu, F. C. Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009 Jul; 80 (7): 722-9.
  10. Llewellyn, D. J. Lang, I. A. Langa, K. M. Muniz-Terrera, G. Phillips, C. L. Cherubini, A. Ferrucci, L. Melzer, D. Vitamin D and risk of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. Jul 12; 170 (13): 1135-41.
  11. Llewellyn, D. J. Langa, K. M. Lang, I. A. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2009 Sep; 22 (3): 188-95.
  12. MacLaughlin, J. Holick, M. F. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest. 1985 Oct; 76 (4): 1536-8.
  13. McCann, J. C. Ames, B. N. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction?. FASEB J. 2008 Apr; 22 (4): 982-1001.
  14. McGrath, J. Scragg, R. Chant, D. Eyles, D. Burne, T. Obradovic, D. No association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level and performance on psychometric tests in NHANES III. Neuroepidemiology. 2007; 29 (1-2): 49-54.
  15. Miller, J. W. Vitamin D and cognitive function in older adults: are we concerned about vitamin D-mentia?. Neurology. Jan 5; 74 (1): 13-5.
  16. Minasyan, A. Keisala, T. Lou, Y. R. Kalueff, A. V. Tuohimaa, P. Neophobia, sensory and cognitive functions, and hedonic responses in vitamin D receptor mutant mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 May; 104 (3-5): 274-80.
  17. Oudshoorn, C. Mattace-Raso, F. U. van der Velde, N. Colin, E. M. van der Cammen, T. J. Higher serum vitamin D3 levels are associated with better cognitive test performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008; 25 (6): 539-43.
  18. Parker, J. Hashmi, O. Dutton, D. Mavrodaris, A. Stranges, S. Kandala, N. B. Clarke, A. Franco, O. H. Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. Mar; 65 (3): 225-36.
  19. Petersen, R. C. Smith, G. E. Waring, S. C. Ivnik, R. J. Tangalos, E. G. Kokmen, E. Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol. 1999 Mar; 56 (3): 303-8.
  20. Przybelski, R. J. Binkley, N. C. Is vitamin D important for preserving cognition? A positive correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration with cognitive function. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Apr 15; 460 (2): 202-5.
  21. Seamans, K. M. Hill, T. R. Scully, L. Meunier, N. Andrillo-Sanchez, M. Polito, A. Hininger-Favier, I. Ciarapica, D. Simpson, E. E. Stewart-Knox, B. J. O'Connor, J. M. Coudray, C. Cashman, K. D. Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older European adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. Aug 11;
  22. Slinin, Y. Paudel, M. L. Taylor, B. C. Fink, H. A. Ishani, A. Canales, M. T. Yaffe, K. Barrett-Connor, E. Orwoll, E. S. Shikany, J. M. Leblanc, E. S. Cauley, J. A. Ensrud, K. E. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance and decline in elderly men. Neurology. Jan 5; 74 (1): 33-41.
  23. Waldstein, S. R. Wendell, C. R. Neurocognitive function and cardiovascular disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 20 (3): 833-42.
  24. Wilkins, C. H. Birge, S. J. Sheline, Y. I. Morris, J. C. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cognitive performance and lower bone density in older African Americans. J Natl Med Assoc. 2009 Apr; 101 (4): 349-54.
  25. Wilkins, C. H. Sheline, Y. I. Roe, C. M. Birge, S. J. Morris, J. C. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with low mood and worse cognitive performance in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Dec; 14 (12): 1032-40.