Sepsis and septicemiaReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in sepsis and septicemia.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.

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Page last edited: 03 May 2011


  1. Barnato, A. E. Alexander, S. L. Linde-Zwirble, W. T. Angus, D. C. Racial variation in the incidence, care, and outcomes of severe sepsis: analysis of population, patient, and hospital characteristics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 1; 177 (3): 279-84.
  2. Blanco, J. Muriel-Bombin, A. Sagredo, V. Taboada, F. Gandia, F. Tamayo, L. Collado, J. Garcia-Labattut, A. Carriedo, D. Valledor, M. De Frutos, M. Lopez, M. J. Caballero, A. Guerra, J. Alvarez, B. Mayo, A. Villar, J. Incidence, organ dysfunction and mortality in severe sepsis: a Spanish multicentre study. Crit Care. 2008; 12 (6): R158.
  3. Cirioni, O. Ghiselli, R. Tomasinsig, L. Orlando, F. Silvestri, C. Skerlavaj, B. Riva, A. Rocchi, M. Saba, V. Zanetti, M. Scalise, G. Giacometti, A. Efficacy of LL-37 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a neutropenic murine sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Shock. 2008 Oct; 30 (4): 443-8.
  4. Cirioni, O. Giacometti, A. Ghiselli, R. Bergnach, C. Orlando, F. Silvestri, C. Mocchegiani, F. Licci, A. Skerlavaj, B. Rocchi, M. Saba, V. Zanetti, M. Scalise, G. LL-37 protects rats against lethal sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 May; 50 (5): 1672-9.
  5. Danai, P. A. Moss, M. Mannino, D. M. Martin, G. S. The epidemiology of sepsis in patients with malignancy. Chest. 2006 Jun; 129 (6): 1432-40.
  6. Danai, P. A. Sinha, S. Moss, M. Haber, M. J. Martin, G. S. Seasonal variation in the epidemiology of sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2007 Feb; 35 (2): 410-5.
  7. Dombrovskiy, V. Y. Martin, A. A. Sunderram, J. Paz, H. L. Facing the challenge: decreasing case fatality rates in severe sepsis despite increasing hospitalizations. Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov; 33 (11): 2555-62.
  8. Dombrovskiy, V. Y. Martin, A. A. Sunderram, J. Paz, H. L. Occurrence and outcomes of sepsis: influence of race. Crit Care Med. 2007 Mar; 35 (3): 763-8.
  9. Dombrovskiy, V. Y. Martin, A. A. Sunderram, J. Paz, H. L. Rapid increase in hospitalization and mortality rates for severe sepsis in the United States: a trend analysis from 1993 to 2003. Crit Care Med. 2007 May; 35 (5): 1244-50.
  10. Downey, L. C. Smith, P. B. Benjamin, D. K., Jr. Risk factors and prevention of late-onset sepsis in premature infants. Early Hum Dev. Jul; 86 Suppl 17-12.
  11. Esper, A. M. Martin, G. S. Extending international sepsis epidemiology: the impact of organ dysfunction. Crit Care. 2009; 13 (1): 120.
  12. Esper, A. M. Moss, M. Lewis, C. A. Nisbet, R. Mannino, D. M. Martin, G. S. The role of infection and comorbidity: Factors that influence disparities in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2006 Oct; 34 (10): 2576-82.
  13. Esper, A. M. Moss, M. Martin, G. S. The effect of diabetes mellitus on organ dysfunction with sepsis: an epidemiological study. Crit Care. 2009; 13 (1): R18.
  14. Fukumoto, K. Nagaoka, I. Yamataka, A. Kobayashi, H. Yanai, T. Kato, Y. Miyano, T. Effect of antibacterial cathelicidin peptide CAP18/LL-37 on sepsis in neonatal rats. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005 Jan; 21 (1): 20-4.
  15. Giacometti, A. Cirioni, O. Ghiselli, R. Bergnach, C. Orlando, F. D'Amato, G. Mocchegiani, F. Silvestri, C. Del Prete, M. S. Skerlavaj, B. Saba, V. Zanetti, M. Scalise, G. The antimicrobial peptide BMAP-28 reduces lethality in mouse models of staphylococcal sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2004 Dec; 32 (12): 2485-90.
  16. Giacometti, A. Cirioni, O. Ghiselli, R. Mocchegiani, F. D'Amato, G. Circo, R. Orlando, F. Skerlavaj, B. Silvestri, C. Saba, V. Zanetti, M. Scalise, G. Cathelicidin peptide sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide-29 prevents endotoxin-induced mortality in rat models of septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Jan 15; 169 (2): 187-94.
  17. Ginde, A. A. Liu, M. C. Camargo, C. A., Jr. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23; 169 (6): 626-32.
  18. Gombart, A. F. The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 41151-65.
  19. Grant, W. B. Vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of sepsis in infants. World J Pediatr. 2010 May; 6 (2): 185; author reply 185-6.
  20. Grant, W. B. Vitamin D supplementation of mother and infant could reduce risk of sepsis in premature infants. Early Hum Dev. 2010 Feb; 86 (2): 133.
  21. Grant, W. B . Solar ultraviolet-B irradiance and vitamin D may reduce the risk of septicemia. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009 January/February; 1 (1): 37-42.
  22. Hatherill, M. Sepsis predisposition in children with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 May; 6 (3 Suppl): S92-8.
  23. Huttunen, R. Laine, J. Lumio, J. Vuento, R. Syrjanen, J. Obesity and smoking are factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with bacteraemia. BMC Infect Dis. 2007; 713.
  24. Jeng, L. Yamshchikov, A. V. Judd, S. E. Blumberg, H. M. Martin, G. S. Ziegler, T. R. Tangpricha, V. Alterations in vitamin D status and anti-microbial peptide levels in patients in the intensive care unit with sepsis. J Transl Med. 2009 Apr 23; 7 (1): 28.
  25. Lee, P. Eisman, J. A. Center, J. R. Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 30; 360 (18): 1912-4.
  26. Lee, P. Nair, P. Eisman, J. A. Center, J. R. Vitamin D deficiency in the intensive care unit: an invisible accomplice to morbidity and mortality?. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Dec; 35 (12): 2028-32.
  27. Liu, P. T. Schenk, M. Walker, V. P. Dempsey, P. W. Kanchanapoomi, M. Wheelwright, M. Vazirnia, A. Zhang, X. Steinmeyer, A. Zugel, U. Hollis, B. W. Cheng, G. Modlin, R. L. Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses. PLoS One. 2009; 4 (6): e5810.
  28. Liu, P. T. Stenger, S. Li, H. Wenzel, L. Tan, B. H. Krutzik, S. R. Ochoa, M. T. Schauber, J. Wu, K. Meinken, C. Kamen, D. L. Wagner, M. Bals, R. Steinmeyer, A. Zugel, U. Gallo, R. L. Eisenberg, D. Hewison, M. Hollis, B. W. Adams, J. S. Bloom, B. R. Modlin, R. L. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311 (5768): 1770-3.
  29. Liu, P. T. Stenger, S. Tang, D. H. Modlin, R. L. Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15; 179 (4): 2060-3.
  30. Martin, G. S. Mannino, D. M. Eaton, S. Moss, M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 17; 348 (16): 1546-54.
  31. Mayr, F. B. Yende, S. Linde-Zwirble, W. T. Peck-Palmer, O. M. Barnato, A. E. Weissfeld, L. A. Angus, D. C. Infection rate and acute organ dysfunction risk as explanations for racial differences in severe sepsis. JAMA. 2010 Jun 23; 303 (24): 2495-503.
  32. Moller, S. Laigaard, F. Olgaard, K. Hemmingsen, C. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 in experimental sepsis. Int J Med Sci. 2007 Jul; 4 (4): 190-5.
  33. Mookherjee, N. Rehaume, L. M. Hancock, R. E. Cathelicidins and functional analogues as antisepsis molecules. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 Aug; 11 (8): 993-1004.
  34. Olsen, M. A. Krauss, M. Agniel, D. Schootman, M. Gentry, C. N. Yan, Y. Damiano, R. J., Jr. Fraser, V. J. Mortality associated with bloodstream infection after coronary artery bypass surgery. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 15; 46 (10): 1537-46.
  35. Peric, M. Koglin, S. Dombrowski, Y. Gross, K. Bradac, E. Buchau, A. Steinmeyer, A. Zugel, U. Ruzicka, T. Schauber, J. Vitamin D analogs differentially control antimicrobial peptide/"alarmin" expression in psoriasis. PLoS One. 2009 Jul; 4 (7): e6340.
  36. Sreeramoju, P. V. Tolentino, J. Garcia-Houchins, S. Weber, S. G. Predictive factors for the development of central line-associated bloodstream infection due to gram-negative bacteria in intensive care unit patients after surgery. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008 Jan; 29 (1): 51-6.
  37. Watson, R. S. Carcillo, J. A. Linde-Zwirble, W. T. Clermont, G. Lidicker, J. Angus, D. C. The epidemiology of severe sepsis in children in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar 1; 167 (5): 695-701.
  38. White, J. H. Vitamin D as an inducer of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression: past, present and future. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Mar; 121 (1-2): 234-8.