Full-text evidence summary



This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:
Adrian Gombart

Complete bibliography of influenza research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in Influenza. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 06 May 2011


  1. Aloia, J. F. Li-Ng, M. Re: epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Oct; 135 (7): 1095-6; author reply 1097-8.
  2. Ardizzone, S. Cassinotti, A. Trabattoni, D. Manzionna, G. Rainone, V. Bevilacqua, M. Massari, A. Manes, G. Maconi, G. Clerici, M. Bianchi Porro, G. Immunomodulatory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on TH1/TH2 cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009 Jan-Mar; 22 (1): 63-71.
  3. Banajeh, S. M. Nutritional rickets and vitamin D deficiency--association with the outcomes of childhood very severe pneumonia: a prospective cohort study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009 Dec; 44 (12): 1207-15.
  4. Britten, R. H. The incidence of epidemic influenza, 1918-19. Pub Health Rep. 1932; 47303-39.
  5. Cannell, J. J. Vieth, R. Umhau, J. C. Holick, M. F. Grant, W. B. Madronich, S. Garland, C. F. Giovannucci, E. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec; 134 (6): 1129-40.
  6. Cannell, J. J. Zasloff, M. Garland, C. F. Scragg, R. Giovannucci, E. On the epidemiology of influenza. Virol J. 2008 Feb; 25 (5): 29.
  7. Chan, M. C. Cheung, C. Y. Chui, W. H. Tsao, S. W. Nicholls, J. M. Chan, Y. O. Chan, R. W. Long, H. T. Poon, L. L. Guan, Y. Peiris, J. S. Proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A (H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Respir Res. 2005 Nov; 11 (6): 135.
  8. Cheung, C. Y. Poon, L. L. Lau, A. S. Luk, W. Lau, Y. L. Shortridge, K. F. Gordon, S. Guan, Y. Peiris, J. S. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual severity of human disease?. Lancet. 2002 Dec 7; 360 (9348): 1831-7.
  9. Creanga, A. A. Johnson, T. F. Graitcer, S. B. Hartman, L. K. Al-Samarrai, T. Schwarz, A. G. Chu, S. Y. Sackoff, J. E. Jamieson, D. J. Fine, A. D. Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K. Jones, L. E. Uyeki, T. M. Balter, S. Bish, C. L. Finelli, L. Honein, M. A. Severity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in pregnant women. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr; 115 (4): 717-26.
  10. du Prel, J. B. Puppe, W. Grondahl, B. Knuf, M. Weigl, J. A. Schaaff, F. Schmitt, H. J. Are meteorological parameters associated with acute respiratory tract infections?. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15; 49 (6): 861-8.
  11. Ginde, A. A. Liu, M. C. Camargo, C. A., Jr. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23; 169 (6): 626-32.
  12. Gombart, A. F. The vitamin D-antimicrobial peptide pathway and its role in protection against infection. Future Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 41151-65.
  13. Grant, W. B. Cannell, J. J. Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe A influenza because they have low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep; 38 (9): 1921; author reply 1921-2.
  14. Grant, W. B. Giovannucci, E. The possible roles of solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D in reducing case-fatality rates from the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009; 1 (4): 215-219.
  15. Hansdottir, S. Monick, M. M. Hinde, S. L. Lovan, N. Look, D. C. Hunninghake, G. W. Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: potential effects on host defense. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 15; 181 (10): 7090-9.
  16. Hansdottir, S. Monick, M. M. Lovan, N. Powers, L. Gerke, A. Hunninghake, G. W. Vitamin D decreases respiratory syncytial virus induction of NF-kappaB-linked chemokines and cytokines in airway epithelium while maintaining the antiviral state. J Immunol. 2010 Jan 15; 184 (2): 965-74.
  17. Hanslik, T. Boelle, P. Y. Flahault, A. Preliminary estimation of risk factors for admission to intensive care units and for death in patients infected with A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus, France, 2009-2010. PLoS Curr Influenza. 2010 Mar 9; RRN1150.
  18. Harris, S. S. Dawson-Hughes, B. Seasonal changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of young American black and white women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jun; 67 (6): 1232-6.
  19. Heaney, R. P. Davies, K. M. Chen, T. C. Holick, M. F. Barger-Lux, M. J. Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan; 77 (1): 204-10.
  20. Hope-Simpson, R. E. The role of season in the epidemiology of influenza. J Hyg (Lond). 1981 Feb; 86 (1): 35-47.
  21. Hypponen, E. Power, C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85 (3): 860-8.
  22. La Ruche, G. Tarantola, A. Barboza, P. Vaillant, L. Gueguen, J. Gastellu-Etchegorry, M. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza and indigenous populations of the Americas and the Pacific. Euro Surveill. 2009 Oct; 14 (42):
  23. Liu, P. T. Stenger, S. Tang, D. H. Modlin, R. L. Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15; 179 (4): 2060-3.
  24. McNally, J. D. Leis, K. Matheson, L. A. Karuananyake, C. Sankaran, K. Rosenberg, A. M. Vitamin D deficiency in young children with severe acute lower respiratory infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009 Oct; 44 (10): 981-8.
  25. Mookherjee, N. Rehaume, L. M. Hancock, R. E. Cathelicidins and functional analogues as antisepsis molecules. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007 Aug; 11 (8): 993-1004.
  26. Ross, T. et al Seroprevalence Following the Second Wave of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza. PLoS Curr Influenza. 2010, Feb; 24
  27. Sabetta, J. R. DePetrillo, P. Cipriani, R. J. Smardin, J. Burns, L. A. Landry, M. L. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2010 June; 5 (6): e11088.
  28. Shaman, J. Kohn, M. Absolute humidity modulates influenza survival, transmission, and seasonality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 3; 106 (9): 3243-8.
  29. Shaman, J. Pitzer, V. Viboud, C. Lipsitch, M. Grenfell, B. Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental US. PLoS Curr Influenza. 2009 Dec; 18RRN1138.
  30. Urashima, M. Segawa, T. Okazaki, M. Kurihara, M. Wada, Y. Ida, H. Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 May; 91 (5): 1255-60.
  31. Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza, Medical progress: Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2010; 362 (May 6): 1708-19.
  32. Yamshchikov, A. V. Desai, N. S. Blumberg, H. M. Ziegler, T. R. Tangpricha, V. Vitamin D for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Endocr Pract. 2009 Jul-Aug; 15 (5): 438-49.