Coronary heart diseaseReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA  
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:

Robert Scragg

Complete bibliography of research used in this research

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D and coronary heart disease. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 09 May 2011


  1. Al-Huthi, M. A. Raja'a, Y. A. Al-Noami, M. Abdul Rahman, A. R. Prevalence of coronary risk factors, clinical presentation, and complications in acute coronary syndrome patients living at high vs low altitudes in Yemen. MedGenMed. 2006; 8 (4): 28.
  2. Anagnostis, P. Athyros, V. G. Adamidou, F. Florentin, M. Karagiannis, A. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: a novel agent for reducing cardiovascular risk?. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2010 Sep; 8 (5): 720-30.
  3. Anderson, J. L. May, H. T. Horne, B. D. Bair, T. L. Hall, N. L. Carlquist, J. F. Lappe, D. L. Muhlestein, J. B. Relation of vitamin D deficiency to cardiovascular risk factors, disease status, and incident events in a general healthcare population. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Oct 1; 106 (7): 963-8.
  4. Arad, Y. Spadaro, L. A. Roth, M. Scordo, J. Goodman, K. Sherman, S. Lerner, G. Newstein, D. Guerci, A. D. Serum concentration of calcium, 1,25 vitamin D and parathyroid hormone are not correlated with coronary calcifications. An electron beam computed tomography study. Coron Artery Dis. 1998; 9 (8): 513-8.
  5. Baibas, N. Trichopoulou, A. Voridis, E. Trichopoulos, D. Residence in mountainous compared with lowland areas in relation to total and coronary mortality. A study in rural Greece. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Apr; 59 (4): 274-8.
  6. Barnett, A. G. Dobson, A. J. McElduff, P. Salomaa, V. Kuulasmaa, K. Sans, S. Cold periods and coronary events: an analysis of populations worldwide. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Jul; 59 (7): 551-7.
  7. Bartels, L. E. Jorgensen, S. P. Agnholt, J. Kelsen, J. Hvas, C. L. Dahlerup, J. F. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone increase interleukin-10 production in CD4+ T cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Dec 15; 7 (13): 1755-64.
  8. Bolland, M. J. Avenell, A. Baron, J. A. Grey, A. MacLennan, G. S. Gamble, G. D. Reid, I. R. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010; 341c3691.
  9. Boucher, B. J. Inadequate vitamin D status: does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome 'X'?. Br J Nutr. 1998 Apr; 79 (4): 315-27.
  10. Boucher, B. J. Vitamin D insufficiency and Diabetes Risks. Curr Drug Targets. 2010 Aug 27;
  11. Braam, L. A. Hoeks, A. P. Brouns, F. Hamulyak, K. Gerichhausen, M. J. Vermeer, C. Beneficial effects of vitamins D and K on the elastic properties of the vessel wall in postmenopausal women: a follow-up study. Thromb Haemost. 2004 Feb; 91 (2): 373-80.
  12. Brewer, L. C. Michos, E. D. Reis, J. P. Vitamin D in atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and endothelial function. Curr Drug Targets. 2011 Jan; 12 (1): 54-60.
  13. Brunetti, N. D. Munno, I. Pellegrino, P. L. Ruggero, V. Correale, M. De Gennaro, L. Cuculo, A. Campanale, E. G. Di Biase, M. Inflammatory Cytokines Imbalance in the Very Early Phase of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Correlations with Angiographic Findings and In-Hospital Events. Inflammation. 2010 Apr 20;
  14. Cannell, J. J. Vieth, R. Umhau, J. C. Holick, M. F. Grant, W. B. Madronich, S. Garland, C. F. Giovannucci, E. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec; 134 (6): 1129-40.
  15. Cannell, J. J. Zasloff, M. Garland, C. F. Scragg, R. Giovannucci, E. On the epidemiology of influenza. Virol J. 2008; 529.
  16. Coen, G. Pierantozzi, A. Spizzichino, D. Sardella, D. Mantella, D. Manni, M. Pellegrino, L. Romagnoli, A. Pacifici, R. Zuccaro, P. Digiulio, S. Risk factors of one year increment of coronary calcifications and survival in hemodialysis patients. BMC Nephrol. 2010; 1110.
  17. Correale, J. Ysrraelit, M. C. Gaitan, M. I. Immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin D in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2009 May; 132 (Pt 5): 1146-60.
  18. Crawford, V. L. McNerlan, S. E. Stout, R. W. Seasonal changes in platelets, fibrinogen and factor VII in elderly people. Age Ageing. 2003 Nov; 32 (6): 661-5.
  19. Dastani, Z. Richards, J. B. Is coronary artery calcification at the intersection of vitamin D and coronary artery disease?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Dec; 30 (12): 2329-30.
  20. Davis, M. M. Taubert, K. Benin, A. L. Brown, D. W. Mensah, G. A. Baddour, L. M. Dunbar, S. Krumholz, H. M. Influenza vaccination as secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology. Circulation. 2006 Oct 3; 114 (14): 1549-53.
  21. Davis, W. Rockway, S. Kwasny, M. Effect of a combined therapeutic approach of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and increased serum 25 (OH) vitamin D on coronary calcium scores in asymptomatic adults. Am J Ther. 2009 Jul-Aug; 16 (4): 326-32.
  22. de Boer, I. H. Kestenbaum, B. Shoben, A. B. Michos, E. D. Sarnak, M. J. Siscovick, D. S. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely associate with risk for developing coronary artery calcification. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Aug; 20 (8): 1805-12.
  23. de Diego, C. Vila-Corcoles, A. Ochoa, O. Rodriguez-Blanco, T. Salsench, E. Hospital, I. Bejarano, F. Del Puy Muniain, M. Fortin, M. Canals, M. Effects of annual influenza vaccination on winter mortality in elderly people with chronic heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2009 Jan; 30 (2): 209-16.
  24. Ding, C. Parameswaran, V. Blizzard, L. Burgess, J. Jones, G. Not a simple fat-soluble vitamin: Changes in serum 25-(OH)D levels are predicted by adiposity and adipocytokines in older adults. J Intern Med. 2010 Nov; 268 (5): 501-10.
  25. Ebi, K. L. Exuzides, K. A. Lau, E. Kelsh, M. Barnston, A. Weather changes associated with hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases and stroke in California, 1983-1998. Int J Biometeorol. 2004 Sep; 49 (1): 48-58.
  26. Faeh, D. Gutzwiller, F. Bopp, M. Lower mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke at higher altitudes in Switzerland. Circulation. 2009 Aug 11; 120 (6): 495-501.
  27. Fiscella, K. Franks, P. Vitamin D, race, and cardiovascular mortality: findings from a national US sample. Ann Fam Med. 2010 Jan-Feb; 8 (1): 11-8.
  28. Forman, J. P. Giovannucci, E. Holmes, M. D. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A. Tworoger, S. S. Willett, W. C. Curhan, G. C. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension. Hypertension. 2007 May; 49 (5): 1063-9.
  29. Freeman, J. W. McGlashan, N. D. Loughhead, M. G. Temperature and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in a temperate climate. Am Heart J. 1976 Sep; 92 (3): 405-7.
  30. Gholap, N. Davies, M. Patel, K. Sattar, N. Khunti, K. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asians. Prim Care Diabetes. 2010 Sep 23;
  31. Giovannucci, E. Liu, Y. Hollis, B. W. Rimm, E. B. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 9; 168 (11): 1174-80.
  32. Grandi, N. C. Breitling, L. P. Vossen, C. Y. Hahmann, H. Wusten, B. Marz, W. Rothenbacher, D. Brenner, H. Serum vitamin D and risk of secondary cardiovascular disease events in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Am Heart J. 2010 Jun; 159 (6): 1044-51.
  33. Grant, W. B. Reassessing the role of sugar in the etiology of heart disease. J Orthomolec Med. 1998; 1395-104.
  34. Grant, W. B. Prevalence of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele may explain the geographical variation of coronary heart disease mortality rates in Western Europe. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010 Sep; 25 (9): 667.
  35. Grant, W. B. Garland, C. F. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26 (4A): 2687-99.
  36. Grant, W. B. Mohr, S. B. Ecological studies of ultraviolet B, vitamin D and cancer since 2000. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 446-54.
  37. Greenland, P. LaBree, L. Azen, S. P. Doherty, T. M. Detrano, R. C. Coronary artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction in asymptomatic individuals. JAMA. 2004 Jan 14; 291 (2): 210-5.
  38. Gurfinkel, E. P. de la Fuente, R. L. Mendiz, O. Mautner, B. Influenza vaccine pilot study in acute coronary syndromes and planned percutaneous coronary interventions: the FLU Vaccination Acute Coronary Syndromes (FLUVACS) Study. Circulation. 2002 May 7; 105 (18): 2143-7.
  39. Gurfinkel, E. P. Leon de la Fuente, R. Mendiz, O. Mautner, B. Flu vaccination in acute coronary syndromes and planned percutaneous coronary interventions (FLUVACS) Study. Eur Heart J. 2004 Jan; 25 (1): 25-31.
  40. Ha, E. J. Kim, Y. Cheung, J. Y. Shim, S. S. Coronary artery disease in asymptomatic young adults: its prevalence according to coronary artery disease risk stratification and the CT characteristics. Korean J Radiol. 2010 Jul-Aug; 11 (4): 425-32.
  41. Hadaegh, F. Harati, H. Zabetian, A. Azizi, F. Seasonal variability of serum lipids in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Med J Malaysia. 2006 Aug; 61 (3): 332-8.
  42. Hjortnaes, J. Butcher, J. Figueiredo, J. L. Riccio, M. Kohler, R. H. Kozloff, K. M. Weissleder, R. Aikawa, E. Arterial and aortic valve calcification inversely correlates with osteoporotic bone remodelling: a role for inflammation. Eur Heart J. 2010 Aug; 31 (16): 1975-84.
  43. Hmamouchi, I. Allali, F. Khazzani, H. Bennani, L. El Mansouri, L. Ichchou, L. Cherkaoui, M. Abouqal, R. Hajjaj-Hassouni, N. Low bone mineral density is related to atherosclerosis in postmenopausal Moroccan women. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9388.
  44. Hsu, J. J. Tintut, Y. Demer, L. L. Vitamin D and osteogenic differentiation in the artery wall. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Sep; 3 (5): 1542-7.
  45. Huxley, R. Barzi, F. Woodward, M. Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2006 Jan 14; 332 (7533): 73-8.
  46. Jean, G. Charra, B. Chazot, C. Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr. 2008 Sep; 18 (5): 395-9.
  47. Jha, H. C. Divya, A. Prasad, J. Mittal, A. Plasma circulatory markers in male and female patients with coronary artery disease. Heart Lung. 2010 Jul-Aug; 39 (4): 296-303.
  48. Kamezaki, F. Sonoda, S. Tomotsune, Y. Yunaka, H. Otsuji, Y. Seasonal variation in serum lipid levels in Japanese workers. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010 Jun 30; 17 (6): 638-43.
  49. Khoo, A. L. Chai, L. Y. Koenen, H. J. Kullberg, B. J. Joosten, I. van der Ven, A. J. Netea, M. G. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates cytokine production induced by Candida albicans: impact of seasonal variation of immune responses. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan; 203 (1): 122-30.
  50. Kilkkinen, A. Knekt, P. Aro, A. Rissanen, H. Marniemi, J. Heliovaara, M. Impivaara, O. Reunanen, A. Vitamin D status and the risk of cardiovascular disease death. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 15; 170 (8): 1032-9.
  51. Kim, D. H. Sabour, S. Sagar, U. N. Adams, S. Whellan, D. J. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in cardiovascular diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004). Am J Cardiol. 2008 Dec 1; 102 (11): 1540-4.
  52. Kloner, R. A. Poole, W. K. Perritt, R. L. When throughout the year is coronary death most likely to occur? A 12-year population-based analysis of more than 220 000 cases. Circulation. 1999 Oct 12; 100 (15): 1630-4.
  53. Ku, C. S. Yang, C. Y. Lee, W. J. Chiang, H. T. Liu, C. P. Lin, S. L. Absence of a seasonal variation in myocardial infarction onset in a region without temperature extremes. Cardiology. 1998 May; 89 (4): 277-82.
  54. Kuanprasert, S. Apichartpikul, N. Chuenkitmongkol, S. Wiangosot, W. Topaiboon, P. Sukonthasarn, A. Evidence of influenza or influenza-like-illness preceding acute coronary syndrome. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008 Nov; 39 (6): 1040-4.
  55. Liang, W. M. Liu, W. P. Chou, S. Y. Kuo, H. W. Ambient temperature and emergency room admissions for acute coronary syndrome in Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol. 2008 Jan; 52 (3): 223-9.
  56. Linhartova, K. Veselka, J. Sterbakova, G. Racek, J. Topolcan, O. Cerbak, R. Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels are independently associated with calcific aortic stenosis. Circ J. 2008 Feb; 72 (2): 245-50.
  57. Madjid, M. Miller, C. C. Zarubaev, V. V. Marinich, I. G. Kiselev, O. I. Lobzin, Y. V. Filippov, A. E. Casscells, S. W., 3rd Influenza epidemics and acute respiratory disease activity are associated with a surge in autopsy-confirmed coronary heart disease death: results from 8 years of autopsies in 34,892 subjects. Eur Heart J. 2007 May; 28 (10): 1205-10.
  58. Manson, J. E. Allison, M. A. Carr, J. J. Langer, R. D. Cochrane, B. B. Hendrix, S. L. Hsia, J. Hunt, J. R. Lewis, C. E. Margolis, K. L. Robinson, J. G. Rodabough, R. J. Thomas, A. M. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcification in the Women's Health Initiative. Menopause. 2010 Jul; 17 (4): 683-91.
  59. Martola, L. Barany, P. Stenvinkel, P. Why do dialysis patients develop a heart of stone and bone of china?. Blood Purif. 2005; 23 (3): 203-10.
  60. Matias, P. J. Ferreira, C. Jorge, C. Borges, M. Aires, I. Amaral, T. Gil, C. Cortez, J. Ferreira, A. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, arterial calcifications and cardiovascular risk markers in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Feb; 24 (2): 611-8.
  61. Matias, P. J. Jorge, C. Ferreira, C. Borges, M. Aires, I. Amaral, T. Gil, C. Cortez, J. Ferreira, A. Cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis patients: effects on mineral metabolism, inflammation, and cardiac dimension parameters. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 May; 5 (5): 905-11.
  62. Matilainen, J. M. Rasanen, A. Gynther, P. Vaisanen, S. The genes encoding cytokines IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12B are primary 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 target genes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 142-5.
  63. Mavri, A. Guzic-Salobir, B. Salobir-Pajnic, B. Keber, I. Stare, J. Stegnar, M. Seasonal variation of some metabolic and haemostatic risk factors in subjects with and without coronary artery disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001 Jul; 12 (5): 359-65.
  64. Mbanu, I. Wellenius, G. A. Mittleman, M. A. Peeples, L. Stallings, L. A. Kales, S. N. Seasonality and coronary heart disease deaths in United States firefighters. Chronobiol Int. 2007; 24 (4): 715-26.
  65. Meyers, D. G. Could influenza vaccination prevent myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death?. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2003; 3 (4): 241-4.
  66. Meyers, D. G. Myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death may be prevented by influenza vaccination. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Mar; 5 (2): 146-9.
  67. Miric, D. Rumboldt, Z. The impact of meteorological factors on the onset of myocardial infarction in the coastal region of middle Dalmatia. G Ital Cardiol. 1993 Jul; 23 (7): 655-60.
  68. Moschos, N. Christoforaki, M. Antonatos, P. Seasonal distribution of acute myocardial infarction and its relation to acute infections in a mild climate. Int J Cardiol. 2004 Jan; 93 (1): 39-44.
  69. Mottillo, S. Filion, K. B. Genest, J. Joseph, L. Pilote, L. Poirier, P. Rinfret, S. Schiffrin, E. L. Eisenberg, M. J. The metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Sep 28; 56 (14): 1113-32.
  70. Nambi, V. Chambless, L. Folsom, A. R. He, M. Hu, Y. Mosley, T. Volcik, K. Boerwinkle, E. Ballantyne, C. M. Carotid intima-media thickness and presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart disease risk: the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Apr 13; 55 (15): 1600-7.
  71. Ockene, I. S. Chiriboga, D. E. Stanek, E. J., 3rd Harmatz, M. G. Nicolosi, R. Saperia, G. Well, A. D. Freedson, P. Merriam, P. A. Reed, G. Ma, Y. Matthews, C. E. Hebert, J. R. Seasonal variation in serum cholesterol levels: treatment implications and possible mechanisms. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Apr 26; 164 (8): 863-70.
  72. Oliveira, E. L. Freitas-Junior, R. Afiune-Neto, A. Murta, E. F. Ferro, J. E. Melo, A. F. Vascular calcifications seen on mammography: an independent factor indicating coronary artery disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009; 64 (8): 763-7.
  73. Park, C. S. Ihm, S. H. Yoo, K. D. Kim, D. B. Lee, J. M. Kim, H. Y. Chung, W. S. Seung, K. B. Kim, J. H. Relation between C-reactive protein, homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein levels and leukocyte and platelet counts, and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease among healthy adults in the USA. Am J Cardiol. 2010 May 1; 105 (9): 1284-8.
  74. Parker, B. D. Bauer, D. C. Ensrud, K. E. Ix, J. H. Association of osteocalcin and abdominal aortic calcification in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Calcif Tissue Int. 2010 Mar; 86 (3): 185-91.
  75. Pell, J. P. Cobbe, S. M. Seasonal variations in coronary heart disease. QJM. 1999 Dec; 92 (12): 689-96.
  76. Pentti, K. Tuppurainen, M. T. Honkanen, R. Sandini, L. Kroger, H. Alhava, E. Saarikoski, S. Use of calcium supplements and the risk of coronary heart disease in 52-62-year-old women: The Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study. Maturitas. 2009 May 20; 63 (1): 73-8.
  77. Perez-Castrillon, J. L. Vega, G. Abad, L. Sanz, A. Chaves, J. Hernandez, G. Duenas, A. Effects of Atorvastatin on vitamin D levels in patients with acute ischemic heart disease. Am J Cardiol. 2007 Apr 1; 99 (7): 903-5.
  78. Pittas, A. G. Chung, M. Trikalinos, T. Mitri, J. Brendel, M. Patel, K. Lichtenstein, A. H. Lau, J. Balk, E. M. Systematic review: Vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 2; 152 (5): 307-14.
  79. Pittas, A. G. Dawson-Hughes, B. Li, T. Van Dam, R. M. Willett, W. C. Manson, J. E. Hu, F. B. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2006 Mar; 29 (3): 650-6.
  80. Reddy Vanga, S. Good, M. Howard, P. A. Vacek, J. L. Role of vitamin D in cardiovascular health. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Sep 15; 106 (6): 798-805.
  81. Reis, J. P. von Muhlen, D. Michos, E. D. Miller, E. R., 3rd Appel, L. J. Araneta, M. R. Barrett-Connor, E. Serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels, and carotid atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Dec; 207 (2): 585-90.
  82. Riek, A. E. Oh, J. Bernal-Mizrachi, C. Vitamin D regulates macrophage cholesterol metabolism in diabetes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 430-3.
  83. Rudd, J. H. Myers, K. S. Bansilal, S. Machac, J. Woodward, M. Fuster, V. Farkouh, M. E. Fayad, Z. A. Relationships among regional arterial inflammation, calcification, risk factors, and biomarkers: a prospective fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography imaging study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009 Mar; 2 (2): 107-15.
  84. Sabetta, J. R. DePetrillo, P. Cipriani, R. J. Smardin, J. Burns, L. A. Landry, M. L. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2010; 5 (6): e11088.
  85. Scragg, R. Holdaway, I. Jackson, R. Lim, T. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and its relation to physical activity and other heart disease risk factors in the general population. Ann Epidemiol. 1992 Sep; 2 (5): 697-703.
  86. Scragg, R. Jackson, R. Holdaway, I. M. Lim, T. Beaglehole, R. Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study. Int J Epidemiol. 1990 Sep; 19 (3): 559-63.
  87. Seretakis, D. Lagiou, P. Lipworth, L. Signorello, L. B. Rothman, K. J. Trichopoulos, D. Changing seasonality of mortality from coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1997 Sep 24; 278 (12): 1012-4.
  88. Shalhoub, V. Shatzen, E. Henley, C. Boedigheimer, M. McNinch, J. Manoukian, R. Damore, M. Fitzpatrick, D. Haas, K. Twomey, B. Kiaei, P. Ward, S. Lacey, D. L. Martin, D. Calcification inhibitors and Wnt signaling proteins are implicated in bovine artery smooth muscle cell calcification in the presence of phosphate and vitamin D sterols. Calcif Tissue Int. 2006 Dec; 79 (6): 431-42.
  89. Shen, H. Bielak, L. F. Ferguson, J. F. Streeten, E. A. Yerges-Armstrong, L. M. Liu, J. Post, W. O'Connell, J. R. Hixson, J. E. Kardia, S. L. Sun, Y. V. Jhun, M. A. Wang, X. Mehta, N. N. Li, M. Koller, D. L. Hakonarson, H. Keating, B. J. Rader, D. J. Shuldiner, A. R. Peyser, P. A. Reilly, M. P. Mitchell, B. D. Association of the vitamin D metabolism gene CYP24A1 with coronary artery calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Dec; 30 (12): 2648-54.
  90. Simon, A. Megnien, J. L. Chironi, G. The value of carotid intima-media thickness for predicting cardiovascular risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010 Feb; 30 (2): 182-5.
  91. Stein, J. H. Fraizer, M. C. Aeschlimann, S. E. Nelson-Worel, J. McBride, P. E. Douglas, P. S. Vascular age: integrating carotid intima-media thickness measurements with global coronary risk assessment. Clin Cardiol. 2004 Jul; 27 (7): 388-92.
  92. Tanne, D. Tenenbaum, A. Shemesh, J. Schwammenthal, Y. Fisman, E. Z. Schwammenthal, E. Adler, Y. Calcification of the thoracic aorta by spiral computed tomography among hypertensive patients: associations and risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Aug 9; 120 (1): 32-7.
  93. Targher, G. Bertolini, L. Padovani, R. Zenari, L. Scala, L. Cigolini, M. Arcaro, G. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and carotid artery intima-media thickness among type 2 diabetic patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Nov; 65 (5): 593-7.
  94. Tziakas, D. N. Chalikias, G. K. Kaski, J. C. Kekes, A. Hatzinikolaou, E. I. Stakos, D. A. Tentes, I. K. Kortsaris, A. X. Hatseras, D. I. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory variable clusters and risk prediction in acute coronary syndrome patients: a factor analysis approach. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jul; 193 (1): 196-203.
  95. Ulmer, H. Kelleher, C. Diem, G. Concin, H. Ruttmann, E. Estimation of seasonal variations in risk factor profiles and mortality from coronary heart disease. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004 Oct 30; 116 (19-20): 662-8.
  96. van der Wielen, R. P. Lowik, M. R. van den Berg, H. de Groot, L. C. Haller, J. Moreiras, O. van Staveren, W. A. Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet. 1995 Jul 22; 346 (8969): 207-10.
  97. van Rossum, C. T. Shipley, M. J. Hemingway, H. Grobbee, D. E. Mackenbach, J. P. Marmot, M. G. Seasonal variation in cause-specific mortality: are there high-risk groups? 25-year follow-up of civil servants from the first Whitehall study. Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Oct; 30 (5): 1109-16.
  98. Wang, L. Manson, J. E. Song, Y. Sesso, H. D. Systematic review: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation in prevention of cardiovascular events. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 2; 152 (5): 315-23.
  99. Weerasinghe, D. P. MacIntyre, C. R. Rubin, G. L. Seasonality of coronary artery deaths in New South Wales, Australia. Heart. 2002 Jul; 88 (1): 30-4.
  100. Wong, A. Incident solar radiation and coronary heart disease mortality rates in Europe. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008; 23 (9): 609-14.
  101. Yusupov, E. Li-Ng, M. Pollack, S. Yeh, J. K. Mikhail, M. Aloia, J. F. Vitamin d and serum cytokines in a randomized clinical trial. Int J Endocrinol. 2010; 2010
  102. Zittermann, A. Koerfer, R. Vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Nov; 11 (6): 752-7.