An introduction to Cardiovascular diseasesPrevention
The epidemiological evidence is largely based on cases and controls drawn from prospective cohort studies (nested case-control studies), looking at incidence rates with respect to prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Those who develop CVD (cases) are then studied in greater detail and individuals who match the cases on a number of points are used as controls.
This approach has been very useful in determining a number of risk-modifying factors for various diseases.
The observational studies have nearly all found statistically significant reduced risk of CVD at the higher 25(OH)D levels compared to the lower levels. When combined in a meta-analysis, the odds ratio for highest vs. lowest 25(OH)D level was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.81), i.e., a 33% reduced risk of developing CVD8.
Page last edited: 04 May 2011
- Dobnig, H. Pilz, S. Scharnagl, H. Renner, W. Seelhorst, U. Wellnitz, B. Kinkeldei, J. Boehm, B. O. Weihrauch, G. Maerz, W. Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 23; 168 (12): 1340-9.
- Ginde, A. A. Scragg, R. Schwartz, R. S. Camargo, C. A., Jr. Prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality in older U.S. adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Sep; 57 (9): 1595-603.
- Giovannucci, E. Liu, Y. Hollis, B. W. Rimm, E. B. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 9; 168 (11): 1174-80.
- Kilkkinen, A. Knekt, P. Aro, A. Rissanen, H. Marniemi, J. Heliovaara, M. Impivaara, O. Reunanen, A. Vitamin D status and the risk of cardiovascular disease death. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 15; 170 (8): 1032-9.
- Melamed, M. L. Michos, E. D. Post, W. Astor, B. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of mortality in the general population. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Aug 11; 168 (15): 1629-37.
- Melamed, M. L. Muntner, P. Michos, E. D. Uribarri, J. Weber, C. Sharma, J. Raggi, P. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease: results from NHANES 2001 to 2004. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Jun; 28 (6): 1179-85.
- Semba, R. D. Houston, D. K. Bandinelli, S. Sun, K. Cherubini, A. Cappola, A. R. Guralnik, J. M. Ferrucci, L. Relationship of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older community-dwelling adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb; 64 (2): 203-9.
- Parker, J. Hashmi, O. Dutton, D. Mavrodaris, A. Stranges, S. Kandala, N. B. Clarke, A. Franco, O. H. Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. Maturitas. 2010 Mar; 65 (3): 225-36.