Renal cancerReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

This summary was reviewed by:

Martin Blomberg Jensen  

Last updated

June 2011

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in renal cancer.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.

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Page last edited: 01 July 2011


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  2. Ben-Shoshan M, Amir S, Dang DT, Dang LH, Weisman Y, Mabjeesh NJ. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1/vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in human cancer cells. Mol.Cancer Ther. 2007 Apr; 6 (4): 1433-9.
  3. Blomberg Jensen, M. Andersen, C. B. Nielsen, J. E. Bagi, P. Jorgensen, A. Juul, A. Leffers, H. Expression of the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in the human kidney and renal clear cell cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 376-82.
  4. Boscoe, F. P. Schymura, M. J. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993-2002. BMC Cancer. 2006; 6264.
  5. Bosetti, C. Scotti, L. Maso, L. D. Talamini, R. Montella, M. Negri, E. Ramazzotti, V. Franceschi, S. La Vecchia, C. Micronutrients and the risk of renal cell cancer: a case-control study from Italy. Int J Cancer. 2007 Feb 15; 120 (4): 892-6.
  6. Chen, W. Clements, M. Rahman, B. Zhang, S. Qiao, Y. Armstrong, B. K. Relationship between cancer mortality/incidence and ambient ultraviolet B irradiance in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun 16;
  7. Devesa, S. S. Grauman, D. J. Blot, W. J. Pennello, G. A. Hoover, R. N. Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-1994. NIH Publication No. 99-4564. 1999 November 8, 2008;
  8. Fujioka, T. Hasegawa, M. Ishikura, K. Matsushita, Y. Sato, M. Tanji, S. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by vitamin D3 agents in murine renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 1998 Jul; 160 (1): 247-51.
  9. Fujioka, T. Suzuki, Y. Okamoto, T. Mastushita, N. Hasegawa, M. Omori, S. Prevention of renal cell carcinoma by active vitamin D3. World J Surg. 2000 Oct; 24 (10): 1205-10.
  10. Gallicchio, L. Moore, L. E. Stevens, V. L. Ahn, J. Albanes, D. Hartmuller, V. Setiawan, V. W. Helzlsouer, K. J. Yang, G. Xiang, Y. B. Shu, X. O. Snyder, K. Weinstein, S. J. Yu, K. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A. Zheng, W. Cai, Q. Campbell, D. S. Chen, Y. Chow, W. H. Horst, R. L. Kolonel, L. N. McCullough, M. L. Purdue, M. P. Koenig, K. L. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of kidney cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 1; 172 (1): 47-57.
  11. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Mohr, S. B. Garland, F. C. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 468-83.
  12. Giovannucci, E. Liu, Y. Rimm, E. B. Hollis, B. W. Fuchs, C. S. Stampfer, M. J. Willett, W. C. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Apr 5; 98 (7): 451-9.
  13. Goodwin, P. J. Ennis, M. Pritchard, K. I. Koo, J. Hood, N. Frequency of vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency at breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and association with risk of distant recurrence and death in a prospective cohort study of T1-3, N0-1, M0 BC. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26 (May 20 suppl): abstr 511.
  14. Grant, W. B. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002 Mar 15; 94 (6): 1867-75.
  15. Grant, W. B. Ecologic studies of solar UV-B radiation and cancer mortality rates. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2003; 164371-7.
  16. Grant, W. B. An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking. Int J Cancer. 2007 Mar 1; 120 (5): 1123-8.
  17. Grant, W. B. A critical review of Vitamin D and cancer: A report of the IARC Working Group on vitamin D. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009; 1 (1): 25-33.
  18. Grant, W. B. How strong is the evidence that solar ultraviolet B and vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer? An examination using Hill’s criteria for causality. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009; 1 (1): 14-21.
  19. Gnarra, J. R Mutations of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in renal carcinoma. Nat. Genet. 1994; 7 (1): 85–90.
  20. Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
  21. Grant, W. B. Garland, C. F. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26 (4A): 2687-99.
  22. Helzlsouer, K. J. Overview of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 1; 172 (1): 4-9.
  23. Hofmann, J. N. Yu, K. Horst, R. L. Hayes, R. B. Purdue, M. P. Long-term variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Apr; 19 (4): 927-31.
  24. Hu, J. Mao, Y. White, K. Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada. Occup Med (Lond). 2002 May; 52 (3): 157-64.
  25. Hu, J. Mao, Y. White, K. Diet and vitamin or mineral supplements and risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Cancer Causes Control. 2003 Oct; 14 (8): 705-14.
  26. Hypponen, E. Power, C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85 (3): 860-8.
  27. Ingraham, B. A. Bragdon, B. Nohe, A. Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Jan; 24 (1): 139-49.
  28. Jorde, R. Sneve, M. Hutchinson, M. Emaus, N. Figenschau, Y. Grimnes, G. Tracking of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during 14 years in a population-based study and during 12 months in an intervention study. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr 15; 171 (8): 903-8.
  29. Karami, S. Boffetta, P. Stewart, P. Rothman, N. Hunting, K. L. Dosemeci, M. Berndt, S. I. Brennan, P. Chow, W. H. Moore, L. E. Occupational sunlight exposure and risk of renal cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2010 Apr 15; 116 (8): 2001-10.
  30. Karami, S. Brennan, P. Hung, R. J. Boffetta, P. Toro, J. Wilson, R. T. Zaridze, D. Navratilova, M. Chatterjee, N. Mates, D. Janout, V. Kollarova, H. Bencko, V. Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N. Holcatova, I. Moukeria, A. Welch, R. Chanock, S. Rothman, N. Chow, W. H. Moore, L. E. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and renal cancer risk in Central and Eastern Europe. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008; 71 (6): 367-72.
  31. Karami, S. Brennan, P. Navratilova, M. Mates, D. Zaridze, D. Janout, V. Kollarova, H. Bencko, V. Matveev, V. Szesznia-Dabrowska, N. Holcatova, I. Yeager, M. Chanock, S. Rothman, N. Boffetta, P. Chow, W. H. Moore, L. E. Vitamin d pathway genes, diet, and risk of renal cell carcinoma. Int J Endocrinol. 2010; 2010879362.
  32. Karami, S. Brennan, P. Rosenberg, P. S. Navratilova, M. Mates, D. Zaridze, D. Janout, V. Kollarova, H. Bencko, V. Matveev, V. Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N. Holcatova, I. Yeager, M. Chanock, S. Menashe, I. Rothman, N. Chow, W. H. Boffetta, P. Moore, L. E. Analysis of SNPs and haplotypes in vitamin D pathway genes and renal cancer risk. PLoS One. 2009; 4 (9): e7013.
  33. Krishnan, A. V. Trump, D. L. Johnson, C. S. Feldman, D. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention and treatment. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010 Jun; 39 (2): 401-18, table of contents.
  34. Lappe, J. M. Travers-Gustafson, D. Davies, K. M. Recker, R. R. Heaney, R. P. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85 (6): 1586-91.
  35. Leffell, D. J. Brash, D. E. Sunlight and skin cancer. Sci Am. 1996 Jul; 275 (1): 52-3, 56-9.
  36. Mohr, S. B. Gorham, E. D. Garland, C. F. Grant, W. B. Garland, F. C. Are low ultraviolet B and high animal protein intake associated with risk of renal cancer?. Int J Cancer. 2006 Dec 1; 119 (11): 2705-9.
  37. Newton, R. Roman, E. Fear, N. Carpenter, L. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and solar ultraviolet radiation. Data are inconsistent. BMJ. 1996 Aug 3; 313 (7052): 298.
  38. Ng, K. Wolpin, B. M. Meyerhardt, J. A. Wu, K. Chan, A. T. Hollis, B. W. Giovannucci, E. L. Stampfer, M. J. Willett, W. C. Fuchs, C. S. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009 Sep 15; 101 (6): 916-23.
  39. Obara, W. Suzuki, Y. Kato, K. Tanji, S. Konda, R. Fujioka, T. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with increased risk and progression of renal cell carcinoma in a Japanese population. Int J Urol. 2007 Jun; 14 (6): 483-7.
  40. Peterlik, M, Grant , W. B, Cross, H.S. Calcium, vitamin D and cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sept; 29 (9): 3687-98.
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  43. Tuohimaa, P. Pukkala, E. Scelo, G. Olsen, J. H. Brewster, D. H. Hemminki, K. Tracey, E. Weiderpass, E. Kliewer, E. V. Pompe-Kirn, V. McBride, M. L. Martos, C. Chia, K. S. Tonita, J. M. Jonasson, J. G. Boffetta, P. Brennan, P. Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin D as a possible explanation. Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jul; 43 (11): 1701-12.