Pancreatic cancerReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:

Albert Lowenfels,

Last updated

June 2011

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in pancreatic cancer. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 01 July 2011


  1. Arnold LD, Patel AV, Yan Y, et al Are racial disparities in pancreatic cancer explained by smoking and overweight/obesity?. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18 (9): 2397–405.
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  3. Barreto, S. G. Ramadwar, M. R. Shukla, P. J. Shrikhande, S. V. Vitamin D3 in operable periampullary and pancreatic cancer: perioperative outcomes in a pilot study assessing safety. Pancreas. 2008 Apr; 36 (3): 315-7.
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  5. Bulathsinghala, P. Syrigos, K. N. Saif, M. W. Role of vitamin d in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2010; 2010721365.
  6. Chiang, K. C. Chen, T. C. Vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jul 21; 15 (27): 3349-54.
  7. Gandini, S. Boniol, M. Haukka, J. Byrnes, G. Cox, B. Sneyd, M. J. Mullie, P. Autier, P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 6;
  8. Ginde, A.A. et al. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2009, Mar; 169 (6): 626-32.
  9. Giovannucci, E. Liu, Y. Rimm, E. B. Hollis, B. W. Fuchs, C. S. Stampfer, M. J. Willett, W. C. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Apr 5; 98 (7): 451-9.
  10. Grant, W. B. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002 Mar 15; 94 (6): 1867-75.
  11. Grant, W. B. Ecologic studies of solar UV-B radiation and cancer mortality rates. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2003; 164371-7.
  12. Grant, W. B. An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking. Int J Cancer. 2007 Mar 1; 120 (5): 1123-8.
  13. Grant, W. B. The effect of solar UVB doses and vitamin D production, skin cancer action spectra, and smoking in explaining links between skin cancers and solid tumours. Eur J Cancer. 2008 Jan; 44 (1): 12-5.
  14. Grant, W. B. How strong is the evidence that solar ultraviolet B and vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer?: An examination using Hill's criteria for causality. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Jan; 1 (1): 17-24.
  15. Grant, W. B. Re: "Overview of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers". Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Sep 8;
  16. Grant, W. B. Relation between prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and incidence of breast, colorectal, and other cancers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 May 12;
  17. Grant, W. B. Garland, C. F. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26 (4A): 2687-99.
  18. Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
  19. Helzlsouer, K. J. Overview of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 1; 172 (1): 4-9.
  20. Hypponen, E. Power, C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85 (3): 860-8.
  21. Jorde, R. Saleh, F. Figenschau, Y. Kamycheva, E. Haug, E. Sundsfjord, J. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in smokers and non-smokers. The fifth Tromsø study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Jan.; 52 (1): 39-45.
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  24. Kawa, S. Nikaido, T. Aoki, Y. Zhai, Y. Kumagai, T. Furihata, K. Fujii, S. Kiyosawa, K. Vitamin D analogues up-regulate p21 and p27 during growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer. 1997; 76 (7): 884-9.
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  28. Lim, U. Freedman, D. M. Hollis, B. W. Horst, R. L. Purdue, M. P. Chatterjee, N. Weinstein, S. J. Morton, L. M. Schatzkin, A. Virtamo, J. Linet, M. S. Hartge, P. Albanes, D. A prospective investigation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of lymphoid cancers. Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 15; 124 (4): 979-86.
  29. Michaelsson, K. Lithell, H. Vessby, B. Melhus, H. Serum retinol levels and the risk of fracture. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan 23; 348 (4): 287-94.
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  31. Mohr, S. B. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Grant, W. B. Garland, F. C. Ultraviolet B irradiance and vitamin D status are inversely associated with incidence rates of pancreatic cancer worldwide. Pancreas. 2010 Jul; 39 (5): 669-74.
  32. Neale, R. E. Youlden, D. R. Krnjacki, L. Kimlin, M. G. van der Pols, J. C. Latitude variation in pancreatic cancer mortality in Australia. Pancreas. 2009 May; 38 (4): 387-90.
  33. Oh, E. Y. Ansell, C. Nawaz, H. Yang, C. H. Wood, P. A. Hrushesky, W. J. Global breast cancer seasonality. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Aug; 123 (1): 233-43.
  34. Peterlik, M. Grant, W. B. Cross, H. S. Calcium, vitamin D and cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sep; 29 (9): 3687-98.
  35. Pettersson, F. Colston, K. W. Dalgleish, A. G. Differential and antagonistic effects of 9-cis-retinoic acid and vitamin D analogues on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Br J Cancer. 2000 Jul; 83 (2): 239-45.
  36. Raimondi, S. Lowenfels, A. B. Morselli-Labate, A. M. Maisonneuve, P. Pezzilli, R. Pancreatic cancer in chronic pancreatitis; aetiology, incidence, and early detection. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2010 Jun; 24 (3): 349-58.
  37. Schwartz, G. G. Eads, D. Rao, A. Cramer, S. D. Willingham, M. C. Chen, T. C. Jamieson, D. P. Wang, L. Burnstein, K. L. Holick, M. F. Koumenis, C. Pancreatic cancer cells express 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase and their proliferation is inhibited by the prohormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jun; 25 (6): 1015-26.
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  40. Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Feb; 19 (2): 89-95.
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  44. Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jul 1; 30 (2): 113-25.
  45. Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: serum vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Aug; 46 (12): 2196-205.
  46. Zugmaier, G. Jager, R. Grage, B. Gottardis, M. M. Havemann, K. Knabbe, C. Growth-inhibitory effects of vitamin D analogues and retinoids on human pancreatic cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jun; 73 (11): 1341-6.