Ovarian cancerReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:

Adetunji Toriola

Last updated

June 2011

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in ovarian cancer.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 18 July 2011


  1. Arslan AA, Clendenen TV, Koenig KL, Hultdin J, Enquist K, Agren A, et al. Circulating vitamin D and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. J Oncol. 2009;
  2. Astbury A Non uniformity in cancer mortality in the USA and Australia appears to share a common pathway. 2005;
  3. Bidoli E, La Vecchia C, Talamini R, Negri E, Parpinel M, Conti E, et al Micronutrients and ovarian cancer: a case-control study in Italy. Ann Oncol. 2001; 12 (11): 1589-93.
  4. Boscoe FP, Schymura MJ. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993-2000. BMC Cancer. 2006; 10 (6): 264.
  5. Chen W, Clements M, Rahman B, Zhang S, Qiao Y, Armstrong BK Relationship between cancer mortality/incidence and ambient ultraviolet B irradiance in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 16 June [Epub ahead of print]; 16
  6. Cook LS, Neilson HK, Lorenzetti DL, Lee RC. A systematic literature review of vitamin D and ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 March 11 [Epub ahead of print]; 203 (1): 70 e1-8.
  7. Devesa SS, Grauman DJ, Blot WJ, Pennello GA, Hoover RN, Fraumeni JF Jr Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-1994. 1999;
  8. Freedman DM, Dosemeci M, McGlynn K Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 2002; 59 (4): 257-62.
  9. Garland CF, Mohr SB, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Garland FC Role of ultraviolet-B irradiance and vitamin D in the prevention of ovarian cancer. Am J Prev Med. December 2006; 31 (6): 512-514.
  10. Garland, C.F. Gorham, E.D. Mohr, S.B. Garland, F.C. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epi. 2009; 19 (7): 468-3.
  11. Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, Koo J, Hood N Frequency of vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency at breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and association with risk of distant recurrence and death in a prospective cohort study of T1-3, N0-1, M0 BC. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26 (20 Suppl):
  12. Grant WB An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002; 94 (6): 1867-75.
  13. Grant WB Ecologic studies of solar UV-B radiation and cancer mortality rates. Recent Results Cancer Research. 2003; 164371-7.
  14. Grant WB The likely role of vitamin D from solar ultraviolet-B irradiance in increasing cancer survival. Anticancer Res. 2006; 262605-14.
  15. Grant WB An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UV irradiance and smoking. Int J Cancer. 2007; 1201123-7.
  16. Grant WB An ecological study of cancer mortality rates including indices for dietary iron and zinc. Anticancer Research. 2008; 28 (3B): 1955-63.
  17. Grant WB A critical review of Vitamin D and Cancer: A report of the IARC Working Group on vitamin D. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009a; 1 (1): 25-33.
  18. Grant WB How strong is the evidence that solar ultraviolet B and vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer? An examination using Hill's criteria for causality. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009b; 1 (1): 17-24.
  19. Grant WB Good evidence exists that solar ultraviolet-B and vitamin D reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Am J Obstetrics Gynecol. 2010 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print].;
  20. Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
  21. Grant WB, Garland CF The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Research. 2006; 26 (4A): 2687-99.
  22. Helzlsouer KJ For the VDPP Steering committee. Overview of the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epi. 2010 June 18 [Epub ahead of print]; 172 (1): 4-9.
  23. Hofmann JN, Yu K, Horst RL, Hayes RB, Purdue MP Long-term variation in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19 (4): 927-31.
  24. Ingraham, B.A. Bragdon, B. Nohe, A. Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008; 24 (1): 139-49.
  25. Jorde R, Sneve M, Hutchinson M, Emaus N, Figenschau Y, Grimnes G. Tracking of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during 14 years in a population-based study and during 12 months in an intervention study. Am J Epidemiol. 2010; 171 (8): 903-908.
  26. Krishnan, A.V. Trump, D.L. Johnson, C.S. Feldman, D. The role of vitamin D in cancer prevention and treatment. Endocrinol Metab Clin North America. 2010; 39 (2): 401-418.
  27. Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85 (6): 1586-91.
  28. Leffell DJ, Brash DE. Sunlight and skin cancer. Sci Am. 1996; 275 (1): 52-3.
  29. Lurie G, Wilkens LR, Thompson PJ, Carney ME, Palmieri RT, Pharoah PD, et al Vitamin D receptor rs2228570 polymorphism and invasive ovarian carcinoma risk: Pooled analysis in five studies within the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Int J Cancer. April 9 2010 [Epub ahead of print];
  30. Lefkowitz ES, Garland CF Sunlight, vitamin D, and ovarian cancer mortality rates in US women. Int J Epidemiol. 1994; 23 (6): 1133-6.
  31. Maia HJ, Casoy J Non-contraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptives. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. March 2008; 13 (1): 17-24.
  32. Ng K, Wolpin BM, Meyerhardt JA, Wu K, Chan AT, Hollis BW, et al Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and survival in patients with colorectal cance. Br J Cancer. Sept 2009 15; 101 (6): 916-23.
  33. Peterlik, M. Grant, W.B. Cross, H.S. Calcium, vitamin D and cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sept 29; 29 (9): 3687-98.
  34. Pittas AG, Chung M, Trikalinos T, Mitri J, Brendel M, Patel K, Lichtenstein AH, Lau J, Balk EM Systematic review: Vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152 (5): 307-14.
  35. Rice LW Hormone prevention strategies for breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Gynecol Oncol. 2010 May 13 [Epub ahead of print]; 118 (2): 202-7.
  36. Salazar-Martinez E, Lazcano-Ponce EC, Gonzalez Lira-Lira G, Escudero-De los Rios P, Hernandez-Avila M Nutritional determinants of epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in Mexico. Oncology. 2002; 63 (2): 151-7.
  37. Toriola AT, Surcel HM, Agborsangaya C, Grankvist K, Tuohimaa P, Toniolo P, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46 (2): 364-9.
  38. Toriola AT, Surcel HM, Calypse A, Grankvist K, Luostarinen T, Lukanova A, et al Independent and joint effects of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium on ovarian cancer risk: A prospective nested case-control study. Eur J Cancer. 2010 June 18 [Epub ahead of print];
  39. Tuohimaa P, Pukkala E, Scelo G, Olsen JH, Brewster DH, Hemminki K, et al Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: Vitamin D as a possible explanation. Eur J Cancer. 2007 May; 29 (43): 1701-1712.
  40. Tworoger SS, Gate MA, Lee IM, Buring JE, Titus-Ernstoff L, Cramer D, et al Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor and risk of ovarian cancer in four studies. Cancer Research. March 1 2009; 69 (5): 1885-91.
  41. Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: Circulating vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk. Gynecologic oncology. 2011 May 1; 121 (2): 369-75.
  42. Zheng W, Danforth KN, Tworoger SS, Goodman MT, Arslan AA, Patel AV, et al Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 June 18 [Epub ahead of print]; 172 (1): 70-80.