Multiple myelomaHow does vitamin D work?

One of the mechanisms that makes multiple myeloma (MM) a deadly disease is production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-91 and MMP-22.

“MMP-2 is an enzyme that degrades components of the extracellular matrix and thus plays a pivotal role in cell migration during physiological and pathological processes”3.

The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, can reduce the production of MMP-94. It also reduces the production of MMP-2 but was also found to increase production of IL-65.

Page last edited: 18 July 2011


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  2. Segarra, M. Lozano, E. Corbera-Bellalta, M. Vilardell, C. Cibeira, M. T. Esparza, J. Izco, N. Blade, J. Cid, M. C. Thalidomide decreases gelatinase production by malignant B lymphoid cell lines through disruption of multiple integrin-mediated signaling pathways. Haematologica. 2010 Mar; 95 (3): 456-63.
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  5. Paduch, R. Kandefer-Szerszen, M. Vitamin D, tamoxifen and beta-estradiol modulate breast cancer cell growth and interleukin-6 and metalloproteinase-2 production in three-dimensional co-cultures of tumor cell spheroids with endothelium. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2005 Sep-Nov; 21 (5-6): 247-56.