This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:

Peter Hutchinsion

Last updated

June 2011

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in melanoma. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 18 July 2011


  1. Agar, N. S. Halliday, G. M. Barnetson, R. S. Ananthaswamy, H. N. Wheeler, M. Jones, A. M. The basal layer in human squamous tumors harbors more UVA than UVB fingerprint mutations: a role for UVA in human skin carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 6; 101 (14): 4954-9.
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  4. Berwick, M. Armstrong, B. K. Ben-Porat, L. Fine, J. Kricker, A. Eberle, C. Barnhill, R. Sun exposure and mortality from melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Feb 2; 97 (3): 195-9.
  5. Boniol, M. Doré, J. F. Autier, P. Smans, M. Boyle, P. Descriptive epidemiology of skin cancer incidence and mortality. Skin Cancer Prevention. 2007; 203-223.
  6. Boniol, M. Doré, J. F. Autier, P. Smans, M. Boyle, P. Descriptive epidemiology of skin cancer incidence and mortality. Skin Cancer Prevention. 2007; 203-223.
  7. Caini, S. Gandini, S. Sera, F. Raimondi, S. Fargnoli, M. C. Boniol, M. Armstrong, B. K. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma according to anatomical site and clinico-pathological variant. European journal of cancer. 2009 Nov; 45 (17): 3054-63.
  8. Chang, Y. M. Barrett, J. H. Bishop, D. T. Armstrong, B. K. Bataille, V. Bergman, W. Berwick, M. Bracci, P. M. Elwood, J. M. Ernstoff, M. S. Gallagher, R. P. Green, A. C. Gruis, N. A. Holly, E. A. Ingvar, C. Kanetsky, P. A. Karagas, M. R. Lee, T. K. Le Marchand, L. Mackie, R. M. Olsson, H. Osterlind, A. Rebbeck, T. R. Sasieni, P. Siskind, V. Swerdlow, A. J. Titus-Ernstoff, L. Zens, M. S. Newton-Bishop, J. A. Sun exposure and melanoma risk at different latitudes: a pooled analysis of 5700 cases and 7216 controls. Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Jun; 38 (3): 814-30.
  9. Colston, K. Colston, M. J. Feldman, D. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and malignant melanoma: the presence of receptors and inhibition of cell growth in culture. Endocrinology. 1981 Mar; 108 (3): 1083-6.
  10. Cust, A. E. Jenkins, M. A. Goumas, C. Armstrong, B. K. Schmid, H. Aitken, J. F. Giles, G. G. Kefford, R. F. Hopper, J. L. Mann, G. J. Early-life sun exposure and risk of melanoma before age 40 years. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2011 Jun; 22 (6): 885-97.
  11. Delancey, J. O. Hannan, L. M. Gapstur, S. M. Thun, M. J. Cigarette smoking and the risk of incident and fatal melanoma in a large prospective cohort study. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2011 Jun; 22 (6): 937-42.
  12. Dal, H. et al. Does relative melanoma distribution by body site 1960-2004 reflect changes in intermittent exposure and intentional tanning in the Swedish population?. Eur J Dermatol. 2007 Sep; 17 (5): 428-34.
  13. Dennis, L. K. et al. Sunburns and risk of cutaneous melanoma: does age matter? A comprehensive meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Aug; 18 (8): 614-27.
  14. Egan, K. M. Vitamin D and melanoma. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 455-61.
  15. Eisman, J. A. Barkla, D. H. Tutton, P. J. Suppression of in vivo growth of human cancer solid tumor xenografts by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Res. 1987 Jan 1; 47 (1): 21-5.
  16. Essa, S et al. VDR microRNA expression and epigenetic silencing of vitamin D signaling in melanoma cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 110-3.
  17. Ferlay, J. Shin, H. R. Bray, F. Forman, D. Mathers, C. Parkin, D. M. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10. 2010; 2011 (6/25/2011):
  18. Field, S. Newton-Bishop, J. A. Melanoma and vitamin D. Molecular oncology. 2011 Apr; 5 (2): 197-214.
  19. Gandini, S. Sera, F. Cattaruzza, M. S. Pasquini, P. Abeni, D. Boyle, P. Melchi, C. F. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: I. Common and atypical naevi. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Jan; 41 (1): 28-44.
  20. Gandini, S. Sera, F. Cattaruzza, M. S. Pasquini, P. Picconi, O. Boyle, P. Melchi, C. F. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Jan; 41 (1): 45-60.
  21. Gandini, S. Sera, F. Cattaruzza, M. S. Pasquini, P. Zanetti, R. Masini, C. Boyle, P. Melchi, C. F. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III. Family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Sep; 41 (14): 2040-59.
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  24. Gandini, S. Sera, F. Cattaruzza, M. S. Pasquini, P. Zanetti, R. Masini, C. Boyle, P. Melchi, C. F. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: III. Family history, actinic damage and phenotypic factors. Eur J Cancer. 2005 Sep; 41 (14): 2040-59.
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  27. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Mohr, S. B. Garland, F. C. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 468-83.
  28. Garland, F. C. White, M. R. Garland, C. F. Shaw, E. Gorham, E. D. Occupational sunlight exposure and melanoma in the U.S. Navy. Arch Environ Health. 1990 Sep-Oct; 45 (5): 261-7.
  29. Ginde, A. A. Liu, M. C. Camargo, C. A., Jr. Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23; 169 (6): 626-32.
  30. Godar, D. E. Landry, R. J. Lucas, A. D. Increased UVA exposures and decreased cutaneous Vitamin D(3) levels may be responsible for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Apr; 72 (4): 434-43.
  31. Gorham, E. D. Mohr, S. B. Garland, C. F. Chaplin, G. Garland, F. C. Do sunscreens increase risk of melanoma in populations residing at higher latitudes?. Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Dec; 17 (12): 956-63.
  32. Grant, W. B. An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking. Int J Cancer. 2007 Mar 1; 120 (5): 1123-8.
  33. Grant, W. B. Skin aging from ultraviolet irradiance and smoking reduces risk of melanoma: epidemiological evidence. Anticancer Res. 2008 Nov-Dec; 28 (6B): 4003-8.
  34. Grant, W. B. In defense of the sun: An estimate of changes in mortality rates in the United States if mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were raised to 45 ng/mL by solar ultraviolet-B irradiance. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Jul; 1 (4): 207-14.
  35. Halsall, J. A. Osborne, J. E. Epstein, M. P. Pringle, J. H. Hutchinson, P. E. The unfavorable effect of the A allele of the vitamin D receptor promoter polymorphism A-1012G has different mechanisms related to susceptibility and outcome of malignant melanoma. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009 Jan; 1 (1): 54-7.
  36. Hu, S. Ma, F. Collado-Mesa, F. Kirsner, R. S. UV radiation, latitude, and melanoma in US Hispanics and blacks. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Jul; 140 (7): 819-24.
  37. Huang, X. X. Bernerd, F. Halliday, G. M. Ultraviolet A within sunlight induces mutations in the epidermal basal layer of engineered human skin. Am J Pathol. 2009 Apr; 174 (4): 1534-43.
  38. Hussein, M. R. Wood, G. S. hMLH1 and hMSH2 gene mutations are present in radial growth-phase cutaneous malignant melanoma cell lines and can be induced further by ultraviolet-B irradiation. Exp Dermatol. 2003 Dec; 12 (6): 872-5.
  39. Hutchinson, P. E. Osborne, J. E. Lear, J. T. Smith, A. G. Bowers, P. W. Morris, P. N. Jones, P. W. York, C. Strange, R. C. Fryer, A. A. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with altered prognosis in patients with malignant melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Feb; 6 (2): 498-504.
  40. Hutchinson, P. E. Osborne, J. E. Pringle, J. H. Higher serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels at presentation are associated with improved survival from melanoma, but there is no evidence that later prevailing levels are protective. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Sep 20; 28 (27): e492-3; author reply 494-5.
  41. Ikehata, H. Kawai, K. Komura, J. Sakatsume, K. Wang, L. Imai, M. Higashi, S. Nikaido, O. Yamamoto, K. Hieda, K. Watanabe, M. Kasai, H. Ono, T. UVA1 genotoxicity is mediated not by oxidative damage but by cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in normal mouse skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Sep; 128 (9): 2289-96.
  42. Ingraham, B. A. Bragdon, B. Nohe, A. Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Jan; 24 (1): 139-49.
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