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Breast cancerReferences


This evidence summary was prepared by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       
[email protected]

The summary was reviewed by:

Katherine D. Crew

Joan Lappe

Last updated

July 2011

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in breast cancer.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.

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Page last edited: 22 August 2011


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  3. Abbas, S. Linseisen, J. Slanger, T. Kropp, S. Mutschelknauss, E. J. Flesch-Janys, D. Chang-Claude, J. The Gc2 allele of the vitamin D binding protein is associated with a decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, independent of the vitamin D status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jun; 17 (6): 1339-43.
  4. Almquist, M. Bondeson, A. G. Bondeson, L. Malm, J. Manjer, J. Serum levels of vitamin D, PTH and calcium and breast cancer risk-a prospective nested case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2010 Nov 1; 127 (9): 2159-68.
  5. Anderson, L. N. Cotterchio, M. Vieth, R. Knight, J. A. Vitamin D and calcium intakes and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun; 91 (6): 1699-707.
  6. Anderson, L. N. Cotterchio, M. Kirsh, V. A. Knight, J. A. Ultraviolet Sunlight Exposure During Adolescence and Adulthood and Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-based Case-Control Study Among Ontario Women. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug 1; 174 (3): 293-304.
  7. Armstrong, B. Doll, R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer. 1975 Apr 15; 15 (4): 617-31.
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  10. Blackmore, K. M. Lesosky, M. Barnett, H. Raboud, J. M. Vieth, R. Knight, J. A. Vitamin D From Dietary Intake and Sunlight Exposure and the Risk of Hormone-Receptor-Defined Breast Cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;
  11. Chen, P. Hu, P. Xie, D. Qin, Y. Wang, F. Wang, H. Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010 Jun; 121 (2): 469-77.
  12. Chen, W. Clements, M. Rahman, B. Zhang, S. Qiao, Y. Armstrong, B. K. Relationship between cancer mortality/incidence and ambient ultraviolet B irradiance in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun 16;
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  17. Engel, P. Fagherazzi, G. Mesrine, S. Boutron-Ruault, M. C. Clavel-Chapelon, F. Joint Effects of Dietary Vitamin D and Sun Exposure on Breast Cancer Risk: Results from the French E3N Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jan; 20 (1): 187-98.
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  20. Gandini, S. Boniol, M. Haukka, J. Byrnes, G. Cox, B. Sneyd, M. J. Mullie, P. Autier, P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 6;
  21. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Mohr, S. B. Garland, F. C. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 468-83.
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  25. Goodwin, P. J. Ennis, M. Pritchard, K. I. Koo, J. Hood, N. Frequency of vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency at breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and association with risk of distant recurrence and death in a prospective cohort study of T1-3, N0-1, M0 BC. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26 (May 20 suppl): abstr 511.
  26. Goodwin, P. J. Ennis, M. Pritchard, K. I. Koo, J. Hood, N. Prognostic effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug 10; 27 (23): 3757-63.
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  30. Grant, W. B. Lower vitamin-D production from solar ultraviolet-B irradiance may explain some differences in cancer survival rates. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006 Mar; 98 (3): 357-64.
  31. Grant, W. B. An ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking. Int J Cancer. 2007 Mar 1; 120 (5): 1123-8.
  32. Grant, W. B. How strong is the evidence that solar ultraviolet B and vitamin D reduce the risk of cancer? An examination using Hill’s criteria for causality. Dermato-Endocrinology. 2009; 1 (1): 14-21.
  33. Grant, W. B. Relation between prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and incidence of breast, colorectal, and other cancers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 May 12;
  34. Grant, W. B. An ecological study of cancer incidence and mortality rates in France with respect to latitude, an index for vitamin D production. Deramato-Endocrinology. 2010 April/May/June; 2 (2):
  35. Grant, W. B. Benefits of vitamin D in reducing the risk of cancer: Time to include vitamin D in cancer treatment?. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2010 Summer; 8 (3): 81-8.
  36. Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
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  38. Grant, W. B. Juzeniene, A. Lagunova, Z. Porojnicu, A. C. Moan, J. E. Vitamin D levels in Norway may be inadequate to reduce risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jul 12;
  39. Hines, S. L. Jorn, H. K. Thompson, K. M. Larson, J. M. Breast cancer survivors and vitamin D: a review. Nutrition. 2010 Mar; 26 (3): 255-62.
  40. Ingles, S. A. Garcia, D. G. Wang, W. Nieters, A. Henderson, B. E. Kolonel, L. N. Haile, R. W. Coetzee, G. A. Vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer in Latinas (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2000 Jan; 11 (1): 25-30.
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  44. Kawase, T. Matsuo, K. Suzuki, T. Hirose, K. Hosono, S. Watanabe, M. Inagaki, M. Iwata, H. Tanaka, H. Tajima, K. Association between vitamin D and calcium intake and breast cancer risk according to menopausal status and receptor status in Japan. Cancer Sci. 2010 May; 101 (5): 1234-40.
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