Several studies have investigated incidence rates of bladder cancer with respect to oral vitamin D intake. In an early case-control study (CCS), no significant difference with respect to oral intake of vitamin D was found1. However, in a recent CCS, an odds ratio of 0.58 (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.06, ptrend = 0.22) was found. Subsequently the same authors reported: Increased odds of bladder cancer were also observed for participants with highest intake of phosphorus and lowest intake of vitamin D (OR: 4.25; 95% CI: 1.44–12.55)2.
In a nested case control study (NCCS) of oral intake of vitamin D with a 12-year follow-up period, a risk ratio of 1.06 (0.75-1.50), p trend = 0.96 was found3. NCCS are considered less reliable than CCS since vitamin D intake or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level varies with time. Studies with follow-up times of zero (CCS) or out to 3 years (NCCS) have found inverse correlations between serum 25(OH)D level and breast cancer incidence, but not for longer times4.
There does not exist a serum 25(OH)D level-bladder cancer incidence curve. However, based on what is known about solar UVB doses and bladder cancer mortality rates from ecological studies and serum 25(OH)D-incidence relations for breast and colorectal cancer5 6 7 8, it appears that maintaining serum 25(OH)D levels in the 40-60 ng/mL (100-150 nmol/l) range might reduce the risk of bladder cancer by 10-20%.
There has been one successful randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation with respect to cancer incidence. In a study involving post menopausal women living in Nebraska, those taking 1100 IU/day of vitamin D3 and 1450 mg/day of calcium had a 77% reduction in all-cancer incidence between the ends of the first and fourth years, while those taking only the calcium had a non-statistically significant 40% risk reduction9.
Page last edited: 24 August 2011
- Vena, J. E. Graham, S. Freudenheim, J. Marshall, J. Zielezny, M. Swanson, M. Sufrin, G. Diet in the epidemiology of bladder cancer in western New York. Nutr Cancer. 1992; 18 (3): 255-64.
- Brinkman, M. T. Buntinx, F. Kellen, E. Dagnelie, P. C. Van Dongen, M. C. Muls, E. Zeegers, M. P. Dietary intake of micronutrients and the risk of developing bladder cancer: results from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Mar; 22 (3): 469-78.
- Michaud, D. S. Spiegelman, D. Clinton, S. K. Rimm, E. B. Willett, W. C. Giovannucci, E. Prospective study of dietary supplements, macronutrients, micronutrients, and risk of bladder cancer in US men. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Dec 15; 152 (12): 1145-53.
- Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
- Gandini, S. Boniol, M. Haukka, J. Byrnes, G. Cox, B. Sneyd, M. J. Mullie, P. Autier, P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 6;
- Grant, W. B. Relation between prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and incidence of breast, colorectal, and other cancers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 May 12;
- Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jul 1; 30 (2): 113-25.
- Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: serum vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Aug; 46 (12): 2196-205.
- Lappe, J. M. Travers-Gustafson, D. Davies, K. M. Recker, R. R. Heaney, R. P. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85 (6): 1586-91.