Bladder cancerIntroduction

Bladder cancer is a cancer often associated with chemical exposure through occupation, air pollution, smoking, and drinking water with contaminants.

Bladder cancer is a cancer often associated with chemical exposure through occupation, air pollution, smoking, and drinking water with contaminants.

Numerous ecological (geographical correlation) studies have found inverse correlations of bladder cancer incidence and/or mortality rates with solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) doses. The mechanisms whereby vitamin D reduces the risk of bladder cancer include effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation, angiogenesis around tumors, and metastasis.

Keeping serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels above 40 ng/mL to 60+ ng/mL should reduce the risk of bladder cancer incidence and increase survival odds.

Bladder cancer is a minor cancer affecting males in the United States about three times more frequently than females1. Risk factors for bladder cancer include chemicals such as those associated with tobacco2 3 and air pollution such as diesel exhaust or emissions from coal-fired power plants4 5 and chlorinated hydrocarbons from drinking water6 7.  Despite the general consensus that smoking is a risk factor, regions of the United States with high mortality rates of white male lung cancer in the period 1970-94 were regions of low bladder cancer mortality rates1. Perhaps smokers succumb to lung cancer before they could die from bladder cancer.

Page last edited: 22 August 2011


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  2. Samanic, C. Kogevinas, M. Dosemeci, M. Malats, N. Real, F. X. Garcia-Closas, M. Serra, C. Carrato, A. Garcia-Closas, R. Sala, M. Lloreta, J. Tardon, A. Rothman, N. Silverman, D. T. Smoking and bladder cancer in Spain: effects of tobacco type, timing, environmental tobacco smoke, and gender. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Jul; 15 (7): 1348-54.
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  5. Grant, W. B. Air pollution in relation to U.S. cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sep; 29 (9): 3537-45.
  6. Cantor, K. P. Lynch, C. F. Hildesheim, M. E. Dosemeci, M. Lubin, J. Alavanja, M. Craun, G. Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts. I. Risk of bladder cancer. Epidemiology. 1998 Jan; 9 (1): 21-8.
  7. Morris, R. D. Audet, A. M. Angelillo, I. F. Chalmers, T. C. Mosteller, F. Chlorination, chlorination by-products, and cancer: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 1992 Jul; 82 (7): 955-63.