Bladder cancerHow does vitamin D work?

A number of mechanisms have been identified by which vitamin D reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. These include effects such as regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and a wide range of cellular mechanisms central to the development of cancer1.

Vitamin D also down regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)2. MMPs play critical roles in cancer development and progression by facilitating collagen invasion3. MMPs have been found involved in bladder cancer incidence4 and progression5.

In the new model of disjunction, initiation, natural selection, overgrowth, metastasis, involution, and transition (abbreviated DINOMIT), vitamin D metabolites prevent disjunction of cells and are beneficial in other phases6.

Page last edited: 22 August 2011


  1. Ingraham, B. A. Bragdon, B. Nohe, A. Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Jan; 24 (1): 139-49.
  2. Bahar-Shany, K. Ravid, A. Koren, R. Upregulation of MMP-9 production by TNFalpha in keratinocytes and its attenuation by vitamin D. J Cell Physiol. 2010 Mar; 222 (3): 729-37.
  3. Symowicz, J. Adley, B. P. Gleason, K. J. Johnson, J. J. Ghosh, S. Fishman, D. A. Hudson, L. G. Stack, M. S. Engagement of collagen-binding integrins promotes matrix metalloproteinase-9-dependent E-cadherin ectodomain shedding in ovarian carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 1; 67 (5): 2030-9.
  4. Srivastava, P. Mandhani, A. Kapoor, R. Mittal, R. D. Role of MMP-3 and MMP-9 and their haplotypes in risk of bladder cancer in North Indian cohort. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Nov; 17 (11): 3068-75.
  5. Offersen, B. V. Knap, M. M. Horsman, M. R. Verheijen, J. Hanemaaijer, R. Overgaard, J. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 measured in urine from bladder cancer patients is an independent prognostic marker of poor survival. Acta Oncol. 2010 Nov; 49 (8): 1283-7.
  6. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Mohr, S. B. Garland, F. C. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 468-83.