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D status of breastfed infants low despite supplementation

Posted on: October 15, 2012   by  Vitamin D Council


Researchers in Turkey report that despite recommended daily vitamin D supplementation, the rate of vitamin D deficiency is high in 4-month-old breastfed infants.

The cross-sectional study published in the October issue of Pediatrics assessed vitamin D status of 143 exclusively breastfed infants supplemented with 400 IU of vitamin D.

Forty (28%) of the infants were vitamin D deficient (defined as ≤20 ng/mL) while 38.5% were insufficient (21-30 ng/mL). During winter months, 45.4% of infants had vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL and 10.6% of infants had levels <10 ng/mL.

The authors conclude,

“Despite supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D daily, the rate of vitamin D deficiency was worryingly high in 4-month-old exclusively breastfed infants living in Izmir, Turkey.”

They call for additional research to clarify optimal D supplementation for the infants, especially during winter months.


Halicioglu O, et al. Vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed 4-month-old infants supplemented during different seasons. Pediatrics. October 2012.

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